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7

ソウル is the pronunciation given in the NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典, but both pronunciations are in use; some speakers pronounce it ソール instead. From The Sounds of Japanese (Vance 2008), pages 67-68: Katakana spellings of recent borrowings and foreign proper names with ウ (u) instead of ー (the length mark) do represent /ou/, but these are rare; Souru ソウル 'Seoul' in ...


7

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


5

When talking about shi (and absence of si), to say "there is no si but shi in Japanese" is not really correct. The truth would rather be "there is no distinction between si and shi in Japanese". In other words, there is only one such "voiceless sibilant" phoneme in Japanese, which is usually written as /s/, and さしすせそ are phonemically parsed as /sa si su se ...


5

I think 学際 is the only standard translation of interdisciplinary (at least according to the dictionary). Although it is easy to imagine what 超域 means, this word is unfamiliar to me at least as a name of an academic field. And apparently there are very few Japanese university departments with 超域 in their names. I feel there is no meaningful difference ...


4

Both exactly means "interdiscipline(-ary)" here. Japanese vocabulary doesn't have a word that can translate "discipline", you can only refer to it by saying "academic field" 学問分野 or "specialized field" 専門分野 etc. Thus if you want to make a two-part compound like "inter" + "discipline", you have to think of a workaround. 学際{がくさい} is a solution based on the ...


3

Today, きゅう is the default (i.e. productive) on-yomi pronunciation of 九 (or 9) for counting most things, and only a small portion of words requires く. Always: hours (o'clock) (9時, 19時), dates (19日, 29日), month name (9月) Preferred or alternative to きゅう: hours (duration) (9時間, 19時間...), years (9年(間), 2009年...), people (9人, 19人...), degree (29度, 39度...), bare ...


2

Technically there is no right or wrong way to spell kana in roman characters. In your Japanese studies you are sure to see just about every combination there is. Just learn to get used to them, and choose the one you like when writing. Personally, "ti" for ち irks me to no end, but technically it's "valid".


2

Generally speaking, there is no hard rule to decide which reading of a kanji is used for a given word or compound. To be certain, you need to look it up in a dictionary and remember each word on a case-by-case basis. However, there are certain tendencies that allow you to guess, better than by random guessing, which reading to use for a certain kanji. To ...


1

They both mean the same of course, and there is plenty of info you can find explaining that ゆく is an older version. In addition, I have found that ゆく tends to be a more informal version of いく. Perhaps ゆく is also easier to pronounce than いく. I don't hold any data, but FWIW, I think ゆく is used more often than いく is conversation.


1

Is there a rule to this? Yes! The rule is 9時 is always くじ. (And similarly, 9月 "September" is always くがつ. Cf. 9ヶ月 きゅうかげつ "nine months".)


1

As explained by @nkjt, the Hepburn romanization aims at representing Japanese kana with Latin letters, which (in their English pronunciation) mimic the Japanese pronunciation as close as possible. This results in the irregularities in the サ行 (si ⇔ shi) and タ行 (ti ⇔ chi, tsu ⇔ tu). Most input systems try to provide maximum compatibility for both ワープロローマ字 ...



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