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9

Is either of コーヒーを・は飲み得ない, 飲むわけにはいかない more correct and/or preferable? No. Or would something without potential, like 飲みにくい・づらい・がたい work better? Hmm... no. 飲みにくい/飲みづらい might sound like you're having difficulty swallowing/drinking because you have some problem in your throat... or maybe you really hate the smell of coffee... Since that's not the ...


7

I don't know what you mean by "-せる" form. -せる can appear at the end of the verb in at least two ways. As the potential form of a verb, which ends in -す. 帰す -> 帰せる As the causative form of a verb. 帰る -> 帰らせる Here, -せる is the potential form of the verb 倒す, so 倒す "to throw over, to knock down" 倒せる "to be able to throw over / knock down" 倒せない "not ...


7

Technically, it exists, but as a Japanese-speaker, I would NOT recommend that you actively use it --- at least not on a regular basis. As @Chocolate stated in the comment above, 「~~させられうる」 is the form. Your sentence “It is possible that she may make you eat her cooking.” can be said in Japanese as: 「ボクは[彼女]{かのじょ}に[自分]{じぶん}の[料理]{りょうり}を[食]{た}べさせられうる。」 ...


7

Neither of the current answers sit well with me at the moment, so I'm going to risk adding to the confusion by posting another. Question 1 (grammar) First, let's clarify the two verbs in question: 解く solve (a problem) 解ける resolve (itself) (These are not the only definitions, but for the sake of brevity and on-topic-ness we'll go with these.) ...


7

I don't think you can differentiate them without looking at the context. ハンバーガー が・を 食べられる → I can eat hamburgers ハンバーガーを食べられてしまった! → Someone ate my hamburger!! With the passive form, you'll usually see the doer/"culprit" indicated by ~に: 父にハンバーガーを食べられることが多い → My hamburgers are often eaten by my father ("My father often eats my ...


7

It depends on what you mean by “potential form.” Both れる/られる and ことができる are attached to a verb and their basic meaning is “have the ability to do.” (れる/られる has very different meanings such as passive and respect, but I ignore them for the purpose of this answer.) Because they are about the ability, the subject is usually animate. The combination of ...


6

They seem entirely ungrammatical to me. But, the number of search hits for "られてられて" (94,100,000) verges on the frightening - almost makes me suspect that the Japanese language has changed its syntax behind my back.. All the more so when you see that these usage contexts include pretty formal ones which must have gone through some kind of proofreading [1]. ...


6

みえる = to be able to see. (precisely: to be seen/to be in sight) ⇒ Can you see the fujisan? => 富士山が見えますか? みれる = to be able to watch. ⇒ Can you watch DVD with this? => それでDVDが見れますか? The same for 聞ける (Can you listen) vs 聞こえる (Can you hear / precisely: to be heard/to be audible) みえる and きこえる and not a special form of みる and きく, they are specific ...


6

1 When you're walking and your shoelaces come undone, they appear to do that on their own. 靴ひもがほどける does not mean that someone unties them, but that they "untie themselves". The meaning is closer to an intransitive active than to a passive; therefore にくい is appropriate. On the other hand, 問題が解ける means that the problem is solved by someone, not that it solves ...


6

A devil's-advocate, non-rigorous argument from etymology: (1) /wakaru/ is morphologically /wak.ar.u/, and so in /ar/ already contains a spontaneous/passive morpheme that is equivalent (in some ways, different in others of course) to modern /((ra)r)e/. (2) Constructions like /nihongo ga wakaru/ are often explained as equivalent to "[somebody] understands ...


5

Unfortunately, 〜飲み得ない might be better used in poetry rather than everyday conversation. And 〜飲むわけにはいかない or 〜飲むわけにはいけない might rather be used more for when something is just "undrinkable" (perhaps something not potable) instead of something you personally cannot (or possibly don't like to) drink. At any rate, along with @Chocolate's point about「〜飲めないんです。」 ...


5

Indeed there are uses of できる outside of sheer potential. Most commonly you'll find it used in the sense of completion of an action, as in your example above, where the preparations have been completed. You also see it in the sense of something that wasn't previously there coming into existence, and you often hear something like 鼻ににきびができた, or that you got a ...


5

Yes, it is the potential form of 書く in the progressive. These phrases are often used in the form 上手に/よく+[verb in potential form]. By itself, the potential form indicates that you are able to do something, and in combination with 上手に/よく, it means you did it well. よく読めた (praising a primary school kid on his 音読 reading out loud) 上手にできた etc. The ...


4

I don't think there is way to decide that without looking at context. And there is another meaning for ~られる, which is used as polite form (keigo), which means 食べられる can be used as similar meaning with 召し上がる (meshiagaru), but of course special usage 召し上がる is more polite than 食べられる for this case.


3

I will go in conjecture mode here, as I do not have the knowledge of the validity in question. (Question 1) Why is ほどけにくい acceptable while とけにくい unacceptable? I guess that it's related to the subject. A shoelace, in English too, gets loose and unties itself. The shoelace can do the action of untying itself, with ease or not, hence the (claimed) ...


3

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...


3

No to both of your questions. You are mixing up different things. もらえる is the potential form of the verb もらう, and it means the same thing as もらうことができる. 見える 'can be seen, is observable' is related to the verb 見る 'see', but means a different thing. The construction is different from 見ることができる.


3

I wouldn't say always. I think the construction Xができる is more or less a fixed expression for "being able to do sth." 車の運転ができる sounds more like "I can drive" in the sense of "I have a driver's licence and know how to drive". It is unmistakably a statement about me. 車を運転できる might be interpreted more circumstantial, like "The car is drivable and I can drive ...


2

I would say,"コーヒーは飲めないんです” I think only this sentence works. It's like "お酒はのめないんです。”This sentence implies that you cannot drink it because it affects your stomach or maybe you're allergic to that. But if that person asks why, I would say,"お腹が痛くなります".or ”気持ちが悪くなります。” If it seriously affects your stomach, I would say, ”体が受け付けません” It means that my body ...


2

I'm going to venture another answer and claim that the perfective-progressive discussion is a bit of a red herring. Usually, since 死ぬ is a change-of-state verb, 死んでいる means "is dead" (perfective aspect) and not "is dying" (progressive aspect). But in this case, I claim that ~ていられない is really a fixed construction and the difference between 死ねない and ...


2

You're on the right track. 〜ている indicates an ongoing process, although in the case of something like dying it's also used to indicate a state of being. For example, in the rare cases that you hear [死]{し}ぬ used instead of [死亡]{しぼう} or [亡]{な}くなる to refer to dead people you'll often hear: [彼]{かれ}は[死]{し}んでいる。 "He is dead." as opposed to ...


2

出来る is the potential form (〜えます form, if you will) of する. As such, in common usage the best practice is to use the native potential form for all non-する verbs and できる for the rest. Proper construction of the potential form is as follows: Type I (〜う) verbs: Change -u to -eる (e.g. 行く => 行ける). This ending can also be further inflected (e.g. 行けます、行けない, etc.) ...


2

Short answer: 得{え}る or うる is more literary. ことができる is slightly more formal than られる and both fit for everyday use. ことができる and られる can only be used to describe humans' ability so they don't fit well with non-volitional verbs (無意志動詞). える or うる can also be used to describe possibility. E.g. ×あられる ○あり得る Both ことができる and られる can be used when you are not ...


2

分かる is never used as 分かれる, right? Because 分かる is already a potential-form verb, according to my Japanese grammar dictionary. >> Right. You don't say 分かれる to mean "can understand". About なる: can it be conjugated as なれる? >> Yes, the potential form of なる is なれる. Or how about ならせる? For example, 青くならせる--make it blue. >>ならせる is the causative form of なる. ...


1

It is 猫に逃げられた, which expresses the fact that the speaker has suffered some damage from the event. 私は can be placed at the beginning but it is not essential. Native speakers would omit it over 95% of the time. 猫が逃げられた makes no sense whatsoever. However, something like 猫がネズミに逃げられた。 makes sense. The cat is the one that suffered damage from letting the ...


1

Your original sentence sounds better as 敬語は凄く長くなる可能性がある。 I guess that means that in Japanese it sounds more natural to say Keigo can get very long. rather than Keigo can be very long. To make that less formal, you could try to omit 可能性, i.e. 敬語は凄く長くなるよね。 Keigo gets really long (sometimes). Other ways of saying the same thing ...


1

They are some ways to get verbs end with える: 五段動詞 can change the last kana to え段 and add る to form a kind of 可能動詞, like: もらう → もらえる 書く → 書ける 飛ぶ → 飛べる They have a similar meaning of the "れる" form : もらわれる 書かれる 飛ばれる. In modern Japanese, the れる form is not so popular as the form of "可能動詞". える is a verb that can be used after the 連用形 of other ...


1

Not all of what you claim as potential form are potential forms. Actually, all -e- except for the one in 思える just switch transitivity. You seem to be doing the conjugation wrong. Notice that when the verb stem ends with a vowel, the potential affix is -re- instead of -e, which is only for when the verb stem ends with a consonant. omow-u → omou (tr.) ...


1

There is no such thing as intransitive form of 解ける used in the sense as in 解ける問題. 解けられる and 解けられない are ungrammatical. The three forms that you have under the transitive version are the correct one. To answer Question 3, They are just a single usage. If the subject is implicit and is to be interpreted as 'anyone', then that will mean that it is absolutely ...



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