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3

~と[思]{おも}います (to omoimasu) <-- I think ~と[申]{もう}します (to moushimasu) <-- I'm called  These just sound really similar because they are same letters/sounds.


2

"と申します" (to moushimasu) is a more formal way to say "と言う" (to iu), which both mean "to say". As you say "name + to moushimasu" is one way to introduce yourself. Keep in mind while this can translate to the English phrase "I'm called ~", it doesn't literally mean that. "と呼ばれる" (to yobareru) would be a closer literal match for that, though not commonly used ...


4

Here it isn't really ことになる as a set phrase, but [...こと]になる; i.e. you can substitute the first part from something else and still maintain the meaning here. 長い話になるが、 As for the "why not ですが", IMO using なる feels more like "it's gonna end up being" instead of just "is": This story I'm about to tell you is going to end up being about something that happened ...


2

"この度" (このたび) can mean several things, including "this time", "soon", or "next time". It is fundamentally very similar to the word 今度(こんど), though この度 seems to more commonly used in some places like formal greetings and news. I've never heard or used this word in informal conversation (For a comparison of these two words and some other similar words, see this ...


7

There is no word for 'it'. Japanese is a very contextual language and the 'it' will be inferred from context. To take some of your examples, if you are walking down the street and you say "it's cold" your friend will know what you mean without talking about weather. The 'it' adds absolutely no new/useful information. Similarly, if you say 寒{さむ}いですね your ...



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