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8

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


7

Technically, it exists, but as a Japanese-speaker, I would NOT recommend that you actively use it --- at least not on a regular basis. As @Chocolate stated in the comment above, 「~~させられうる」 is the form. Your sentence “It is possible that she may make you eat her cooking.” can be said in Japanese as: 「ボクは[彼女]{かのじょ}に[自分]{じぶん}の[料理]{りょうり}を[食]{た}べさせられうる。」 ...


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


4

The latter, passive. cf. やられた!


4

The same thing any te form does. It's "continuative" and the part that comes after elaborates on that condition. So if you say あんな事聞かれて・・・ then whatever comes after will be in the context of having been asked such a question. So 聞かれて平常心でいられるか means that, having been asked such a thing, the speaker wonders if he/she/whoever is being asked will be able to stay ...


4

I think イグサという植物の茎を編んで is an adjunct that tells us how the main clause verb 作られています happens. That is, it's similar to the English: tatami-omote is made [by weaving rush stalks] Note that the English has one passive (is made) and one non-finite verb (weaving). It corresponds fairly well to the Japanese, in which 作られている is passive and 編んで is ...


4

In [僕]{ぼく}に[文句]{もんく}言われても[困]{こま}る, 僕に doesn't mark the person who does 文句言う, but the indirect object of 言う; 僕に文句(を)言う = (you) complain to me. It's saying "I will 困る if you 文句を言う to me."


3

The main thing to take into account here is the ~てもらう that's used in the second sentence. With this construction, the subject receives the benefit of an action. To illustrate: 母【はは】に晩【ばん】ご飯【はん】を作【つく】ってもらった。 (My mother made dinner for me.) 先生【せんせい】に文章【ぶんしょう】を読【よ】んでもらった。 (The teacher read the sentence for us.) So in this case, it's not simply that ...


3

It's true that 〜(ら)れる is often referred to as a "passive" form because that's one of its main uses, but it has other uses as well. They can be divided into four categories: 受身 - passive (most common) 可能 - potential 尊敬 - honorific 自発 - spontaneous (least common) This is an example of the potential use of 〜(ら)れる, here inflected to the negative 〜れない, ...


3

Here are two suggestions. I think both are ok and other variations are possible. It would be interesting to hear people's comments. It is not very well known that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much bigger than most European countries. The fact that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much ...


3

The key part of this construction that implies a negative outcome is the passivity on the one hand, and the actions of the verbal phrases on the other -- the subject of these sentences is having something done to them, in a way that is outside of their control, and that something is unpleasant or adverse in some way. One construction I've run across in ...


2

More detail about how the causative and passive suffixes evolved. The causative (-a)せる arose from just plain old す (su), itself the origin of the ubiquitous modern verb する (suru, "to do"). The original meaning was "to do [something]; to make XX do [something]" -- i.e., this served as a causativizing or transitivizing suffix. Meanwhile, the passive (-a)れる ...


1

This first sentence is in the passive voice, while the second sentence is in the active voice. Direct translations of each: A new university building was built. [Someone unspecified] built a new university building. Japanese often omits the subject of the sentence if that subject can be understood from context, such as if the subject were already ...


1

Yes, ditto what How to Japanese said, context is king. お兄さんに食べられる [something] is eaten by elder brother お兄さんが食べられる elder brother is eaten [by something] OR elder brother can eat [something] And, as Jeemusu notes, -られる is often turned into -れる in speech and more casual writing, precisely to help clarify this difference. About tense, @How to Japanese, ...


1

It is 猫に逃げられた, which expresses the fact that the speaker has suffered some damage from the event. 私は can be placed at the beginning but it is not essential. Native speakers would omit it over 95% of the time. 猫が逃げられた makes no sense whatsoever. However, something like 猫がネズミに逃げられた。 makes sense. The cat is the one that suffered damage from letting the ...


1

Is the second form a contraction of the first? Yes. 行かされる is a contraction of 行かせられる. (That said, I'm not sure how this came about etymologically.) Can all 五段 verbs follow this pattern? For example, could 読ませられる be replaced with 読まされる? Yes. All 五段 verbs may follow this pattern. Thus, 読まされる may be used as the causative passive form of 読む. If ...



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