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7

I might be seeing this too simplistically, but in the first sentence: 泥棒に財布を盗ぬすまれた (A thief stole my wallet) you are the subject and the wallet is the object, hence the を on the wallet. In the second sentence: 泥棒に財布が盗まれた (the/a wallet was stolen by a thief) the wallet is the (passive) subject, hence the が.


7

I am afraid that your understanding of the third form is incorrect. 「捕らえられていた」 is the equivalent of the English "pluperfect passive voice". There is no "progressive" expressed in this. In English, it would be "had been caught (and had stayed in captivity since)".


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


6

Little words like by and に have lots of uses. He was murdered by his own doctor! She was sitting by the tree enjoying the sun. I won the contest by cheating. She bills by the hour. In the first sentence, by is used for the agent of a passive clause. In the second sentence, by is used to express a location. In the third sentence, by is ...


5

There are various ways to analyze passives in Japanese grammatically (see Ishizuka, p. 174), but I will be presenting a specific view which I really like, which is Ishizuka's. When you passivize a sentence in Japanese (by adding -(r)are- to the verb), you lift a non-が argument of the active sentence to が, and lift the が argument of the active sentence to ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


4

The same thing any te form does. It's "continuative" and the part that comes after elaborates on that condition. So if you say あんな事聞かれて・・・ then whatever comes after will be in the context of having been asked such a question. So 聞かれて平常心でいられるか means that, having been asked such a thing, the speaker wonders if he/she/whoever is being asked will be able to stay ...


4

I think イグサという植物の茎を編んで is an adjunct that tells us how the main clause verb 作られています happens. That is, it's similar to the English: tatami-omote is made [by weaving rush stalks] Note that the English has one passive (is made) and one non-finite verb (weaving). It corresponds fairly well to the Japanese, in which 作られている is passive and 編んで is ...


3

Yes, it is very possible to use the passive with an intransitive verb in Japanese. It just has a different meaning than what you normally think of when you use passive. Japanese actually has two types of passives. The first is the one you already know- an action is done to the subject by the agent. The subject is marked with は/が and the agent is marked with ...


3

It is headline grammar, not "regular" grammar. Words are often omitted intentionally in article headlines in Japanese just as in English. In English, you would see "[Name] Shot Dead" instead of "[Name] Has Been Shot Dead" as a headline, would you not? 1.Were the title: "キタシロサイ、地球にたった1匹のオス、24時間体制で守られ ている ", how would the meaning change? The meaning ...


3

Whether you use intransitive or passive depends mostly on what you want to imply. Passive is used when there's clearly an active agent causing the action (even if the agent isn't explicitly stated). Intransitive doesn't carry that information. ドアが閉まる - The door closes. (彼に)ドアが閉められる - The door is closed (by him). The first example only means ...


3

The words that you are looking for are: 「~~に」 and 「~~によって」 I would, however, need to remind you that the reason for describing an event (or situation) using the passive voice is often the very fact that the personal agent is of little to no importance to the speaker and/or listener. This, coupled with the fact that both subjects and objects are ...


3

The key part of this construction that implies a negative outcome is the passivity on the one hand, and the actions of the verbal phrases on the other -- the subject of these sentences is having something done to them, in a way that is outside of their control, and that something is unpleasant or adverse in some way. One construction I've run across in ...


3

More detail about how the causative and passive suffixes evolved. The causative (-a)せる arose from just plain old す (su), itself the origin of the ubiquitous modern verb する (suru, "to do"). The original meaning was "to do [something]; to make XX do [something]" -- i.e., this served as a causativizing or transitivizing suffix. Meanwhile, the passive (-a)れる ...


3

Here are two suggestions. I think both are ok and other variations are possible. It would be interesting to hear people's comments. It is not very well known that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much bigger than most European countries. The fact that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much ...


3

美化語 is not 尊敬語 (=honorific), although 美化語 is a subset of 敬語. Using 美化語 simply "beautifies" the target word. Saying お財布 (instead of 財布) does not imply the owner of the wallet, and you can always say 私のお財布 if you like. In this case, 「泥棒にお財布を盗まれました」 is a perfect way to say "I had my wallet stolen". Likewise, you can usually say (my) "お寿司", "お友達", "お風呂", "お菓子" ...


3

A purely-grammar-based, "textbook" answer would be 「[褒]{ほ}められ[得]{う}る」. The chances that you would ever hear/see us say that in a natural setting would, however, be close to 0%. It sounds pretty wordy and not even completely "natural". In real life, 「褒めてもらえる」, the phrase given by @Choko above, would be far more natural. 「褒められることができる」 is actually as ...


2

蚊に刺された does mean "I was bitten by a mosquito." Passives in general work like this: Active sentence: actor-GA patient-WO verb.stem-verb.inflection ⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓ Passive sentence: patient-GA actor-NI verb.stem-are-verb.inflection So in your case: Active sentence: ka-GA ...


2

The particle "に" can fulfill many distinct grammatical functions. In this case, "に" does not mark a qualifier of time or place, but instead marks the agent/source of a passive verb. As such, it would usually be translated in English with the preposition "by": 私が刺された。 I was bitten/stung. 私が蚊に刺された。 I was bitten by a mosquito. See this page for an ...


2

This first sentence is in the passive voice, while the second sentence is in the active voice. Direct translations of each: A new university building was built. [Someone unspecified] built a new university building. Japanese often omits the subject of the sentence if that subject can be understood from context, such as if the subject were already ...


2

This is the so-called "adversarial passive". I give a detailed explanation of passives (including the "adversarial" ones) here: 「を」 object marker in this 受身形{うけみけい} sentence In your case: ⇓Active Sentence: 他の人が       (私の)手紙を 見た  ⇓ ⇓Passive Sentence:  (私が) 他の人に     手紙を 見られた⇓ That is to say, 「私の」 gets lifted to 「私が」, and 「他の人が」 gets lifted to ...


1

Unfortunately, なぶる is very rare in modern Japanese, except that the compound なぶり殺す is occasionally used. I'm not sure about the exact nuance of "tormented by daily life", but if I have to find a transitive verb that fits this situation, I would choose 打ちのめす or 打ちひしぐ. The latter is mainly used in its passive form (打ちひしがれる). ...


1

I hope I get your question right. Why do people use passive voice? 1) Because there is no alternative, the subject cannot act on its own. I was born in A. The cake was eaten by John. When the baby is born other people do all the work. The baby is just born. The cake cannot do much of his own. Therefore other people act upon him. A cake can smell, ...


1

From my understanding because 日記 and 部屋 are marked with を it adds the implication that the subject/topic of the sentence (僕) is the owner of the 日記 and 部屋 since he was affected by his little sister acting out the verb. Is this correct? Yes. But maybe your understanding about why it works in that way is not enough correct. 僕は in your example #1 and #2 is ...


1

Either 日記が妹に読まれた or 僕は妹に日記が読まれた sound a slip up of …日記を…, otherwise they sound unnatural. (People won't find it so much odd as a slip up.) The structure itself can be used in other examples like この国では日記が多くの人に読まれている, but that specific example is not natural. You wrote "it implies that a person (subject marked with は) was affected", but that doesn't ...


1

Yes, ditto what How to Japanese said, context is king. お兄さんに食べられる [something] is eaten by elder brother お兄さんが食べられる elder brother is eaten [by something] OR elder brother can eat [something] And, as Jeemusu notes, -られる is often turned into -れる in speech and more casual writing, precisely to help clarify this difference. About tense, @How to Japanese, ...


1

This is just a guess to answer your updated challenge based on then entries in the プログレッシブ dictionary. Whereas 捕らえる puts the emphasis on the capture of a criminal, 捕まえる can be used to refer to either the capture (捕らえる) or the detaining (引き留める). In your question you made the criminal the subject and used the word やっと to mean finally caught: The emphasis ...


1

Is the second form a contraction of the first? Yes. 行かされる is a contraction of 行かせられる. (That said, I'm not sure how this came about etymologically.) Can all 五段 verbs follow this pattern? For example, could 読ませられる be replaced with 読まされる? Yes. All 五段 verbs may follow this pattern. Thus, 読まされる may be used as the causative passive form of 読む. If ...



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