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9

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


8

Technically, it exists, but as a Japanese-speaker, I would NOT recommend that you actively use it --- at least not on a regular basis. As @Chocolate stated in the comment above, 「~~させられうる」 is the form. Your sentence “It is possible that she may make you eat her cooking.” can be said in Japanese as: 「ボクは[彼女]{かのじょ}に[自分]{じぶん}の[料理]{りょうり}を[食]{た}べさせられうる。」 ...


7

I might be seeing this too simplistically, but in the first sentence: 泥棒に財布を盗ぬすまれた (A thief stole my wallet) you are the subject and the wallet is the object, hence the を on the wallet. In the second sentence: 泥棒に財布が盗まれた (the/a wallet was stolen by a thief) the wallet is the (passive) subject, hence the が.


7

I am afraid that your understanding of the third form is incorrect. 「捕らえられていた」 is the equivalent of the English "pluperfect passive voice". There is no "progressive" expressed in this. In English, it would be "had been caught (and had stayed in captivity since)".


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

There are various ways to analyze passives in Japanese grammatically (see Ishizuka, p. 174), but I will be presenting a specific view which I really like, which is Ishizuka's. When you passivize a sentence in Japanese (by adding -(r)are- to the verb), you lift a non-が argument of the active sentence to が, and lift the が argument of the active sentence to ...


4

Little words like by and に have lots of uses. He was murdered by his own doctor! She was sitting by the tree enjoying the sun. I won the contest by cheating. She bills by the hour. In the first sentence, by is used for the agent of a passive clause. In the second sentence, by is used to express a location. In the third sentence, by is ...


4

I think イグサという植物の茎を編んで is an adjunct that tells us how the main clause verb 作られています happens. That is, it's similar to the English: tatami-omote is made [by weaving rush stalks] Note that the English has one passive (is made) and one non-finite verb (weaving). It corresponds fairly well to the Japanese, in which 作られている is passive and 編んで is ...


4

In [僕]{ぼく}に[文句]{もんく}言われても[困]{こま}る, 僕に doesn't mark the person who does 文句言う, but the indirect object of 言う; 僕に文句(を)言う = (you) complain to me. It's saying "I will 困る if you 文句を言う to me."


4

The same thing any te form does. It's "continuative" and the part that comes after elaborates on that condition. So if you say あんな事聞かれて・・・ then whatever comes after will be in the context of having been asked such a question. So 聞かれて平常心でいられるか means that, having been asked such a thing, the speaker wonders if he/she/whoever is being asked will be able to stay ...


3

Here are two suggestions. I think both are ok and other variations are possible. It would be interesting to hear people's comments. It is not very well known that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much bigger than most European countries. The fact that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much ...


3

The key part of this construction that implies a negative outcome is the passivity on the one hand, and the actions of the verbal phrases on the other -- the subject of these sentences is having something done to them, in a way that is outside of their control, and that something is unpleasant or adverse in some way. One construction I've run across in ...


3

More detail about how the causative and passive suffixes evolved. The causative (-a)せる arose from just plain old す (su), itself the origin of the ubiquitous modern verb する (suru, "to do"). The original meaning was "to do [something]; to make XX do [something]" -- i.e., this served as a causativizing or transitivizing suffix. Meanwhile, the passive (-a)れる ...


3

The main thing to take into account here is the ~てもらう that's used in the second sentence. With this construction, the subject receives the benefit of an action. To illustrate: 母【はは】に晩【ばん】ご飯【はん】を作【つく】ってもらった。 (My mother made dinner for me.) 先生【せんせい】に文章【ぶんしょう】を読【よ】んでもらった。 (The teacher read the sentence for us.) So in this case, it's not simply that ...


3

It's true that 〜(ら)れる is often referred to as a "passive" form because that's one of its main uses, but it has other uses as well. They can be divided into four categories: 受身 - passive (most common) 可能 - potential 尊敬 - honorific 自発 - spontaneous (least common) This is an example of the potential use of 〜(ら)れる, here inflected to the negative 〜れない, ...


3

The particle "に" can fulfill many distinct grammatical functions. In this case, "に" does not mark a qualifier of time or place, but instead marks the agent/source of a passive verb. As such, it would usually be translated in English with the preposition "by": 私が刺された。 I was bitten/stung. 私が蚊に刺された。 I was bitten by a mosquito. See this page for an ...


3

美化語 is not 尊敬語 (=honorific), although 美化語 is a subset of 敬語. Using 美化語 simply "beautifies" the target word. Saying お財布 (instead of 財布) does not imply the owner of the wallet, and you can always say 私のお財布 if you like. In this case, 「泥棒にお財布を盗まれました」 is a perfect way to say "I had my wallet stolen". Likewise, you can usually say (my) "お寿司", "お友達", "お風呂", "お菓子" ...


3

A purely-grammar-based, "textbook" answer would be 「[褒]{ほ}められ[得]{う}る」. The chances that you would ever hear/see us say that in a natural setting would, however, be close to 0%. It sounds pretty wordy and not even completely "natural". In real life, 「褒めてもらえる」, the phrase given by @Choko above, would be far more natural. 「褒められることができる」 is actually as ...


2

蚊に刺された does mean "I was bitten by a mosquito." Passives in general work like this: Active sentence: actor-GA patient-WO verb.stem-verb.inflection ⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓ Passive sentence: patient-GA actor-NI verb.stem-are-verb.inflection So in your case: Active sentence: ka-GA ...


2

This first sentence is in the passive voice, while the second sentence is in the active voice. Direct translations of each: A new university building was built. [Someone unspecified] built a new university building. Japanese often omits the subject of the sentence if that subject can be understood from context, such as if the subject were already ...


1

This is the so-called "adversarial passive". I give a detailed explanation of passives (including the "adversarial" ones) here: 「を」 object marker in this 受身形{うけみけい} sentence In your case: ⇓Active Sentence: 他の人が       (私の)手紙を 見た  ⇓ ⇓Passive Sentence:  (私が) 他の人に     手紙を 見られた⇓ That is to say, 「私の」 gets lifted to 「私が」, and 「他の人が」 gets lifted to ...


1

Yes, ditto what How to Japanese said, context is king. お兄さんに食べられる [something] is eaten by elder brother お兄さんが食べられる elder brother is eaten [by something] OR elder brother can eat [something] And, as Jeemusu notes, -られる is often turned into -れる in speech and more casual writing, precisely to help clarify this difference. About tense, @How to Japanese, ...


1

This is just a guess to answer your updated challenge based on then entries in the プログレッシブ dictionary. Whereas 捕らえる puts the emphasis on the capture of a criminal, 捕まえる can be used to refer to either the capture (捕らえる) or the detaining (引き留める). In your question you made the criminal the subject and used the word やっと to mean finally caught: The emphasis ...


1

Is the second form a contraction of the first? Yes. 行かされる is a contraction of 行かせられる. (That said, I'm not sure how this came about etymologically.) Can all 五段 verbs follow this pattern? For example, could 読ませられる be replaced with 読まされる? Yes. All 五段 verbs may follow this pattern. Thus, 読まされる may be used as the causative passive form of 読む. If ...



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