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4

Little words like by and に have lots of uses. He was murdered by his own doctor! She was sitting by the tree enjoying the sun. I won the contest by cheating. She bills by the hour. In the first sentence, by is used for the agent of a passive clause. In the second sentence, by is used to express a location. In the third sentence, by is ...


3

The particle "に" can fulfill many distinct grammatical functions. In this case, "に" does not mark a qualifier of time or place, but instead marks the agent/source of a passive verb. As such, it would usually be translated in English with the preposition "by": 私が刺された。 I was bitten/stung. 私が蚊に刺された。 I was bitten by a mosquito. See this page for an ...


3

A purely-grammar-based, "textbook" answer would be 「[褒]{ほ}められ[得]{う}る」. The chances that you would ever hear/see us say that in a natural setting would, however, be close to 0%. It sounds pretty wordy and not even completely "natural". In real life, 「褒めてもらえる」, the phrase given by @Choko above, would be far more natural. 「褒められることができる」 is actually as ...


2

蚊に刺された does mean "I was bitten by a mosquito." Passives in general work like this: Active sentence: actor-GA patient-WO verb.stem-verb.inflection ⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓ Passive sentence: patient-GA actor-NI verb.stem-are-verb.inflection So in your case: Active sentence: ka-GA ...


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This is just a guess to answer your updated challenge based on then entries in the プログレッシブ dictionary. Whereas 捕らえる puts the emphasis on the capture of a criminal, 捕まえる can be used to refer to either the capture (捕らえる) or the detaining (引き留める). In your question you made the criminal the subject and used the word やっと to mean finally caught: The emphasis ...



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