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9

Ignoring the passives, which can be inferred: 掴む: grasp. 腕を掴む. The action ends once your hand closes on the object. This is in contrast to 握る, which focuses on the time spent gripping the object after it has been taken in the hand. 捕る: capture, as in an animal. 魚を捕る. Can be substituted with 捕獲する. (There are many kanji for とる, the choice of which depends on ...


8

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


7

Technically, it exists, but as a Japanese-speaker, I would NOT recommend that you actively use it --- at least not on a regular basis. As @Chocolate stated in the comment above, 「~~させられうる」 is the form. Your sentence “It is possible that she may make you eat her cooking.” can be said in Japanese as: 「ボクは[彼女]{かのじょ}に[自分]{じぶん}の[料理]{りょうり}を[食]{た}べさせられうる。」 ...


7

Generally, the difference between a transitive phrase and ukemi transitive phrase is emphasis. For example: ① 田中さんが村田さんに他動詞の使い方を教えた。 ② 村田さんは田中さんに他動詞の使い方を教えられた。 ③ 村田さんは他動詞の使い方を田中さんから教わった。 The first sentence (transitive) is very much focused on 田中さん. 村田さん is only mentioned because he's involved with the action that 田中さん is performing. The second (ukemi) ...


7

I don't think you can differentiate them without looking at the context. ハンバーガー が・を 食べられる → I can eat hamburgers ハンバーガーを食べられてしまった! → Someone ate my hamburger!! With the passive form, you'll usually see the doer/"culprit" indicated by ~に: 父にハンバーガーを食べられることが多い → My hamburgers are often eaten by my father ("My father often eats my ...


7

Yes, your reasoning is correct. は/が is used to describe when the action happens to the thing itself. を is used to emphasize the (usually negative) effect of the action on the subject, optionally indicating the agent of the action with に. 弟にケーキを食べられた → My cake was eaten by my little brother (anger/aggravation implied). カバンを取られてしまった → My bag was ...


6

They seem entirely ungrammatical to me. But, the number of search hits for "られてられて" (94,100,000) verges on the frightening - almost makes me suspect that the Japanese language has changed its syntax behind my back.. All the more so when you see that these usage contexts include pretty formal ones which must have gone through some kind of proofreading [1]. ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

I don't understand at all what you mean by "performed on the subject", but in the most natural interpretation, the sentence you gave is not passive. It is subject honorific form. And the sentence 明日の会議に行きませんか? that you suggested will mean a different thing. And although very unnatural, it is in principle possible to interpret your example as passive. In ...


5

A) 1) 食べる羊 can be ① "the sheep that eats" 羊 is the subject for 食べる. 「羊が食べる」>>「食べる羊」 ② "the sheep to eat" "the sheep you/someone eat(s)" 羊 is the object for 食べる. 「羊を食べる」>>「食べる羊」 2) 食べられる羊 When the 羊 is the subject for 食べられる. 「羊が食べられる」>>「食べられる羊」 The (ら)れる can be: ① a passive auxiliary verb. "the sheep that is eaten" eg.狼に食べられる羊 ② a potential auxiliary verb. ...


4

I don't think there is way to decide that without looking at context. And there is another meaning for ~られる, which is used as polite form (keigo), which means 食べられる can be used as similar meaning with 召し上がる (meshiagaru), but of course special usage 召し上がる is more polite than 食べられる for this case.


4

明日の会議に行かれるんですか? Are you going to tomorrow's meeting? The above sentence should not be interpreted as passive, it is 敬語. In other words depending on context, the forms される、行かれる、etc. can mean either passive or honorific form (usually it is easy to tell the difference by the context).


4

In the verb+noun construction (in fact, this is a sentence+noun construcion), there is no strict rule that the noun is meant to be a subject for the verb's action. This is the most frequent case but no rule at all. The noun can also be a direct object, an indirect object, or something just associated with the action. Thus, 食べる人 can mean "the person that ...


3

The main thing to take into account here is the ~てもらう that's used in the second sentence. With this construction, the subject receives the benefit of an action. To illustrate: 母【はは】に晩【ばん】ご飯【はん】を作【つく】ってもらった。 (My mother made dinner for me.) 先生【せんせい】に文章【ぶんしょう】を読【よ】んでもらった。 (The teacher read the sentence for us.) So in this case, it's not simply that ...


3

It's true that 〜(ら)れる is often referred to as a "passive" form because that's one of its main uses, but it has other uses as well. They can be divided into four categories: 受身 - passive (most common) 可能 - potential 尊敬 - honorific 自発 - spontaneous (least common) This is an example of the potential use of 〜(ら)れる, here inflected to the negative 〜れない, ...


2

あの状況にはうんざりする Yes it sounds correct. あの状況にはうんざりさせる ? No, because it literally sounds like YOU are feeding up something (it should be you who are fed up). "させる" is let someone do something, generally. So you can say instead あの状況にはうんざりさせられる as you mentioned.


2

My initial perception (that I had before asking this question) also dealt with the focus of the sentence. With the 教えられる/教わる example, they both essentially mean "X was taught", but the X is different with each one. 学生は日本語を教わった - The students were taught Japanese (The subject the students were taught was Japanese) 学生は日本語を教えられた - The students were ...


1

It is 猫に逃げられた, which expresses the fact that the speaker has suffered some damage from the event. 私は can be placed at the beginning but it is not essential. Native speakers would omit it over 95% of the time. 猫が逃げられた makes no sense whatsoever. However, something like 猫がネズミに逃げられた。 makes sense. The cat is the one that suffered damage from letting the ...


1

For starters, could 「・・・食べる食事」 also mean: "a meal that (I/you/we) ("can"/will) eat"? And couldn't 「・・・食べられる食事」 mean something more like: "a meal that (I/you/we) (can/are able to) eat"? Context is important, though, as well; I'd be scared if the food was the one who was doing the eating... ;)



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