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10

Generally, the difference between a transitive phrase and ukemi transitive phrase is emphasis. For example: ① 田中さんが村田さんに他動詞の使い方を教えた。 ② 村田さんは田中さんに他動詞の使い方を教えられた。 ③ 村田さんは他動詞の使い方を田中さんから教わった。 The first sentence (transitive) is very much focused on 田中さん. 村田さん is only mentioned because he's involved with the action that 田中さん is performing. The second (ukemi) ...


9

Ignoring the passives, which can be inferred: 掴む: grasp. 腕を掴む. The action ends once your hand closes on the object. This is in contrast to 握る, which focuses on the time spent gripping the object after it has been taken in the hand. 捕る: capture, as in an animal. 魚を捕る. Can be substituted with 捕獲する. (There are many kanji for とる, the choice of which depends on ...


8

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


7

I don't think you can differentiate them without looking at the context. ハンバーガー が・を 食べられる → I can eat hamburgers ハンバーガーを食べられてしまった! → Someone ate my hamburger!! With the passive form, you'll usually see the doer/"culprit" indicated by ~に: 父にハンバーガーを食べられることが多い → My hamburgers are often eaten by my father ("My father often eats my ...


7

Yes, your reasoning is correct. は/が is used to describe when the action happens to the thing itself. を is used to emphasize the (usually negative) effect of the action on the subject, optionally indicating the agent of the action with に. 弟にケーキを食べられた → My cake was eaten by my little brother (anger/aggravation implied). カバンを取られてしまった → My bag was ...


7

Technically, it exists, but as a Japanese-speaker, I would NOT recommend that you actively use it --- at least not on a regular basis. As @Chocolate stated in the comment above, 「~~させられうる」 is the form. Your sentence “It is possible that she may make you eat her cooking.” can be said in Japanese as: 「ボクは[彼女]{かのじょ}に[自分]{じぶん}の[料理]{りょうり}を[食]{た}べさせられうる。」 ...


6

They seem entirely ungrammatical to me. But, the number of search hits for "られてられて" (94,100,000) verges on the frightening - almost makes me suspect that the Japanese language has changed its syntax behind my back.. All the more so when you see that these usage contexts include pretty formal ones which must have gone through some kind of proofreading [1]. ...


6

The person that is loved by everyone. It's just a basic relative clause, no magic involved.


6

Context is important. With passive verbs you should look for a に before the verb that will mark the person or thing that performs the verb. This is not the same as the subject of the verb. For example, if you see the short phrase: お兄さんに食べられた。 You can figure out pretty quickly from the に that this is not the potential. The subject of the sentence is an ...


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

I don't understand at all what you mean by "performed on the subject", but in the most natural interpretation, the sentence you gave is not passive. It is subject honorific form. And the sentence 明日の会議に行きませんか? that you suggested will mean a different thing. And although very unnatural, it is in principle possible to interpret your example as passive. In ...


5

A) 1) 食べる羊 can be ① "the sheep that eats" 羊 is the subject for 食べる. 「羊が食べる」>>「食べる羊」 ② "the sheep to eat" "the sheep you/someone eat(s)" 羊 is the object for 食べる. 「羊を食べる」>>「食べる羊」 2) 食べられる羊 When the 羊 is the subject for 食べられる. 「羊が食べられる」>>「食べられる羊」 The (ら)れる can be: ① a passive auxiliary verb. "the sheep that is eaten" eg.狼に食べられる羊 ② a potential auxiliary verb. ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


4

In the verb+noun construction (in fact, this is a sentence+noun construcion), there is no strict rule that the noun is meant to be a subject for the verb's action. This is the most frequent case but no rule at all. The noun can also be a direct object, an indirect object, or something just associated with the action. Thus, 食べる人 can mean "the person that ...


4

明日の会議に行かれるんですか? Are you going to tomorrow's meeting? The above sentence should not be interpreted as passive, it is 敬語. In other words depending on context, the forms される、行かれる、etc. can mean either passive or honorific form (usually it is easy to tell the difference by the context).


4

I don't think there is way to decide that without looking at context. And there is another meaning for ~られる, which is used as polite form (keigo), which means 食べられる can be used as similar meaning with 召し上がる (meshiagaru), but of course special usage 召し上がる is more polite than 食べられる for this case.


4

I think イグサという植物の茎を編んで is an adjunct that tells us how the main clause verb 作られています happens. That is, it's similar to the English: tatami-omote is made [by weaving rush stalks] Note that the English has one passive (is made) and one non-finite verb (weaving). It corresponds fairly well to the Japanese, in which 作られている is passive and 編んで is ...


4

In [僕]{ぼく}に[文句]{もんく}言われても[困]{こま}る, 僕に doesn't mark the person who does 文句言う, but the indirect object of 言う; 僕に文句(を)言う = (you) complain to me. It's saying "I will 困る if you 文句を言う to me."


4

I don't know if this answers your question but.. there you go ●先生が新聞を お読みになり ました。vs 先生が新聞を 読まれ ました。 ●先生、新聞を お読みになり ましたか。vs 先生、新聞を 読まれ ましたか。 Dictionary form - れる/られる form - お/ご~~になる form 読む - 読まれる - お読みになる する - される - なさる (×おしになる) なる - なられる - おなりになる いる - おられる(×いられる)、いらっしゃる (×おい?になる) 見る - 見られる - ご覧になる (×お見になる) 言う - 言われる、おっしゃる ...


4

The latter, passive. cf. やられた!


4

The same thing any te form does. It's "continuative" and the part that comes after elaborates on that condition. So if you say あんな事聞かれて・・・ then whatever comes after will be in the context of having been asked such a question. So 聞かれて平常心でいられるか means that, having been asked such a thing, the speaker wonders if he/she/whoever is being asked will be able to stay ...


3

Potential verbs are much more common than passive form. However, keep in mind that in speech it is very common to use ら抜き言葉 also. For example: 来られる #1 来れる #2 Some people actually believe that #1 is passive and #2 is potential, while others would say that #1 is both passive and potential (which is the way the standard dialect (東京弁) deems it). ...


3

It's true that 〜(ら)れる is often referred to as a "passive" form because that's one of its main uses, but it has other uses as well. They can be divided into four categories: 受身 - passive (most common) 可能 - potential 尊敬 - honorific 自発 - spontaneous (least common) This is an example of the potential use of 〜(ら)れる, here inflected to the negative 〜れない, ...


3

Here are two suggestions. I think both are ok and other variations are possible. It would be interesting to hear people's comments. It is not very well known that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much bigger than most European countries. The fact that Japan is about the same size as the state of California and much ...


3

The key part of this construction that implies a negative outcome is the passivity on the one hand, and the actions of the verbal phrases on the other -- the subject of these sentences is having something done to them, in a way that is outside of their control, and that something is unpleasant or adverse in some way. One construction I've run across in ...


3

My initial perception (that I had before asking this question) also dealt with the focus of the sentence. With the 教えられる/教わる example, they both essentially mean "X was taught", but the X is different with each one. 学生は日本語を教わった - The students were taught Japanese (The subject the students were taught was Japanese) 学生は日本語を教えられた - The students were ...


3

The main thing to take into account here is the ~てもらう that's used in the second sentence. With this construction, the subject receives the benefit of an action. To illustrate: 母【はは】に晩【ばん】ご飯【はん】を作【つく】ってもらった。 (My mother made dinner for me.) 先生【せんせい】に文章【ぶんしょう】を読【よ】んでもらった。 (The teacher read the sentence for us.) So in this case, it's not simply that ...


2

あの状況にはうんざりする Yes it sounds correct. あの状況にはうんざりさせる ? No, because it literally sounds like YOU are feeding up something (it should be you who are fed up). "させる" is let someone do something, generally. So you can say instead あの状況にはうんざりさせられる as you mentioned.


2

More detail about how the causative and passive suffixes evolved. The causative (-a)せる arose from just plain old す (su), itself the origin of the ubiquitous modern verb する (suru, "to do"). The original meaning was "to do [something]; to make XX do [something]" -- i.e., this served as a causativizing or transitivizing suffix. Meanwhile, the passive (-a)れる ...



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