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11

It's an emphatic particle from old Japanese. Only God/Gods. There's another one used with questions to show more uncertainty. "どこぞで休んでいくか" (デジタル大辞泉)


10

It's the strongest, tersest form of negative. It always follows a plain form verb. I have no idea of the origin; it's pretty old though:) Regarding the origin, it goes back to at least the 8th century in this form: 活用語の終止形に付いて、「~するな」と禁止する意をあらわす。現代口語に継承されている。 大和道は雲隠れたりしかれども吾が振る袖をなめしと思ふな(万葉集、筑紫娘子) こちふかば匂ひおこせよ梅の花あるじなしとて春を忘るな(拾遺集、菅原道真) Source: ...


9

If you look at koujien's entry for ぞ there are several uses (mostly outdated), but I think the one which applies here is: 一つの事柄を特に指定し強調する。 In other words, it places emphasis on something specific. So in reguards to this light novel/anime series title I think it places emphasis on the fact that the/a world which ONLY GOD knows about. Also, this reminded me ...


7

「~がある」という時の「ある」は、普通の動詞です。ところが、これを否定して「~がない」という時、この「ない」は形容詞です。 本来、動詞の否定は「書かない」「見ない」「来ない」のように、動詞の後ろに自立しない助動詞である「ない」をくっつけて作るものなので、「ある」の否定は「× あらない」となるはずなのですが、この形は標準日本語にはありません。日本語では、「× あらない」の意味を表すのに形容詞の「ない」を借りてきて使います。 これは補充形 (suppletive) といい、英語が "go" の過去形に "*go-ed" などではなく、もともと "wend" の過去形だった "went" を借りて使っているのと同じです。 ...


5

「お金がある。」というときの「ある」は、動詞です。(辞書) (「置いてある」「吾輩は猫である」というときの「ある」は、補助動詞です。 「昔々あるところに・・・」というときの「ある」は、連体詞です。) 「お金がない。」「おもしろくない。」というときの「ない」は、形容詞です。(辞書) 「食べない」というときの「ない」は、助動詞です。(辞書)


5

It's the Prohibition particle If na follows a dictionary form verb, it is a negative command ("Don't... "). However, if used with a verb stem, it implies the opposite: "Do..."


5

The two types are: 五段動詞 (ごだんどうし) - means "5-level verbs". This is the group where the conjugations match the 5 vowel sounds of their respective kana ending. A common 五段動詞 is 書く. It conjugates along the k- column of the hiragana table: 書かない  書きます  書く  書けば/書ける  書こう We can see that its conjugations hit all 5 k-kana: か き く け こ Note that 五段動詞 that end ...


4

There is a pretty good and complete overview of the two groups (一段/五段, which can also be seen as "U-dropping" and "RU-dropping" in romaji) on this page. する and くる have separate, exception-filled, conjugations of their own (sometimes referred to as サ行変格活用/カ行変格活用). Note that, like many technical grammatical question, I really don't think you will get a very ...


4

The two main classifications of regular verbs are 一段 and 五段, named after the number of forms their base takes. 食べる -> 食べ 入る -> 入ら・入り・入る・入れ・入ろ Within 一段 there are two further classifications, although both are conjugated the same way. 上一段: 見る, 落ちる, etc. 下一段: 寝る, 当てる. etc.


4

You're wrong/doubting because you don't parse/translate correctly the sentences. 静かにランチを食べたいです。 is 静かに(Adv) + 食べる, i.e., eat quietly. 静かにしなさい is 静か(N) + にする, i.e., make it quiet or alternatively 静かに(Adv) + する, do quietly. Actually, I think both interpretations are possible here, but I'm pretty sure the first one is the "good" one. ...


2

ある is a verb and an adnominal adjective. ない is adjective and verbal auxiliary. ない as adjective means " non-existent" like テレビがない. ない as verbal auxiliary is set at the end of 未然形 of a verb and means "negative" like たべない.


2

I think there are a couple of points to make here: Nouns of quantity are similar to number+classifier compounds in that they're often used in "bare form" as adverbs: りんごを1個食べた ~ 1個のりんごを食べた りんごをたくさん食べた ~ たくさんのりんごを食べた in both cases, the former version with the adverbial form is the more natural one, and the latter tends to be used only when for some ...


2

I cannot be sure of my answer because Japanese Language is strongly dependent by context. However, this is a possible explanation. Actually I am sure to say that うんたらかんたら belongs to spoken Japanese. It is not an expression being used in books or serious stuff. Actually it is high probable for you to find such an expression into a manga or said by a ...


2

Practically all monolingual dictionaries will label 「気がかり」 as both a [名詞]{めいし} and a [形容動詞]{けいようどうし}. 名詞: "noun" 形容動詞: "na-adjective" or "adjectival noun" 「Word X + な + Noun」 If the phrase above makes sense, then Word X can be called a 形容動詞 according to Japanese "school grammar", which is the main school of grammar that is being taught to our ...


2

It's the masu-form of the intransitive verb かかる (to relate, to concern, etc), used as a noun. 気がかり is a compound noun made of 気 (mind) + かかり (concerning). This noun + masu-form pattern is very often seen in Japanese nouns. Just to name a few: 綱引き (tug of war): 綱 (rope) + 引き (pulling) 花見 (cherry-viewing): 花 (flower) + 見 (viewing) 爪切り (nail clipper): 爪 ...


2

何か can be used to mean 'something', which can also be an adverb; or 'anything', which can be used to describe the extent/magnitude, and is an adverb in that case. 何かいいことがあったか? - What's the good news? / Did something good happen? 何か一言を言ってください - Please say a few words. How about りんごを一つ食べた, as opposed to 一つのりんごを食べた? The former's 一つ functions as ...


2

From what I know, 感動詞 is the term more commonly found in Japanese language textbooks and is the standard term used in discussions about the Japanese language among linguists or translators. By contrast, 間投詞 is a synonym typically glossed in dictionaries by referring to the entry on 感動詞. Separately, the terms 形状言 and 様言葉 do not appear in any reference ...


1

In the sentences 何かいいことがあったか? and 何か一言言ってください, which can be translated respectively: Was there something good (good news) for you? - Here ‘something’ is used as a subject. Would you please say something (a few words?) – Here ‘something’ is used as an object. I think '何か' functions as a pronoun rather than an adverb. The usage of '何か' here is ...


1

Shogakukan gives much the same definition. However, I don't think that's necessarily a big deal -- multiple terms of reference for a single part of speech is not unknown in Japanese. 形容詞{けいようし}, for instance, have also been called 形状言{けいじょうげん} and 様言葉{さまことば}. I suspect the difference between 感動詞 and 間投詞 might depend on which grammarian you ask. For what ...


1

As others have noted, な following the plain form of a verb is the abrupt command form for "don't [verb]". As far as the origin goes, this is the root of modern verb ending and adjective ない "not". Note that this negative な is decidedly not the same as the affirmative な used after a verb stem in the 連用形{れんようけい} continuative form (ending in -i or -e). That な ...



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