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I just replied today to a question that I believe might concern the same topic you are being confused by (since you don't give much context is a bit hard to say for sure). Anyway, if I'm correct it might be an interesting reading: aru vs arun -- are they exactly the same grammar-wise?


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「[飲]{の}むんだ。」 Unless the context proved otherwise, that would be a request/order. It would be masculine speech nearly 100% of the time. "Drink it up!" The "other" main usage of 「~~のだ/んだ」 is when you explain (rather assertively) the reason or cause for something. 「飲まないと[眠]{ねむ}れないから飲むんだ!」 = "I drink (alcohol) because I couldn't sleep if I ...


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「ともだちがいるってすてきだなあ。」 In this context, 「~~って」=「~~というのは」 In informal speech, 「~~って」 is used to present a word/phrase/sentence as a topic. Here, 「ともだちがいる」("that one has friends") is being presented as a topic (and the speaker is saying that 'it is nice'). Attention: This is not the quotative 「って」.


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That would be 「ペンがある。」 100% of the time. 「ペンがある。」 (= "There is a pen.") is a statement about 'what is there' or 'what the speaker has just found at a particular location". It is not a statement that gives some kind of description about either pens in general or a particular pen. If you desire to make a further statement about the pen after you have found ...


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I feel that the distinctions between は and が are one of the hardest parts to learn about the Japanese language, so I'll try to keep things mostly focused on this example. ペンはある Here "は” marks ”ペン" as a "topic", rather a "subject", but what that really translates into is a feeling of: There is a pen (but there isn't a ....) This is because that ...


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According to デジタル大辞泉 and 大辞林, this や is a 終助詞 (sentence ending particle) rather than a 感動詞 (interjection). 「 3⃣-2 軽く言い放すような気持ちを表す。『もう、どうでもいいや』」(デジタル大辞泉) 「四-② 軽く言い放つような気持ち,または,なげやりな気持ちを表す。『まあ,いいや』『今さらどうしようもないや』」(大辞林) I think や as an "interjection expressing surprise" is something like... 「( 感 ) ① 驚いた時に発する語。『や、こんな所にあった』」(大辞林) / ...


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With just [her?] parent's OK to go out, I could only think "miraculous [is life]" So it could be translated as "with just ~Q" in this case.


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「[親公認]{おやこうにん}で[付]{つ}き[合]{あ}えるこの[状況]{じょうきょう}だけで、[奇跡]{きせき}と[思]{おも}わなくっちゃいけない。」 「だけで」=「だけでも」 in this context. It means "even just", expressing the fact that a seemingly bare minimal condition would actually look quite satisfactory if one tried to see it from another perspective. "Even just this situation where we can go out with our parents' ...


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I'll answer in English, since I assume your native language is English and some nuance of my answer might be lost if it was in Japanese. Messages on this board are mostly in English as well, with a few exceptions. Yes, there are many cases where particles can be omitted in conversation. For example, は and を are frequently omitted:      僕はりんごを食べるよ。 ...


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In most cases, が is used before a question word (何、どれ、etc.) as opposed to は. This is because が has the nuance that it emphasizes this word which is the same reason が is usually used when answering a question (ex: "誰がやったの?" => "先生がやったよ") Depending on the nuance trying to be conveyed, が or は can be used naturally after any non-question こそあど words.



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