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2

Yes this just means, in standard Japanese, 「例によって例のごとくだ」. And it means the same as 「例によって例のごとしだ」. や is a sentence ending particle used in Kansai. ごとく is the 連用形 of ごとし in old Japanese, and thus (例によって)例のごとく is mainly used adverbially. In your example, it's directly followed by だ/や because 例によって例のごとく is treated as a fixed expression.


2

I think you can use へ or に more or less interchangeably in your examples without any real change in meaning, but に is probably the more common choice. 1a. 川の向こうへ渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 1b. 川の向こうに渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 2a. 友達とレストランへ行きます。 2b. 友達とレストランに行きます。 3a. 来月国へ帰ります。 3b. 来月国に帰ります。 Even if you use へ instead of に, you wouldn't be returning in ...


1

「読んでて」 is the very common colloquial contraction of 「読んでいて」. This elision of 「い」 happens all the time when we are speaking. Contrary to what seems to me a popular belief among J-learners, we use 「~~て/でいる」 verb form to describe a habitual action. (I have seen/heard many J-learners use the dictionary form instead for this purpose.) 「マンガばっかり読んで(い)る」← ...


0

「に」 being colloquial and 「へ」 being for writing, not really. You can have colloquial writing, for example. I think your friend is mixing spoken language with colloquial language. Spoken would be the language that comes out in the form of sound. Being sponken doesn't automatically implies that it is colloquial. You can have formal, polite spoken language, ...


2

In the first place, "hanbaaga-ga" as in "hanbaaga-ga hoshii" is not the subject. So it doesn't mean a burger is wanted. Both the subject and the object of "hoshii" are indicated by ga, in other words, when you express "bobu-wa hanbaaga-ga hoshii" without any topicalized elements, it becomes "bobu-ga hanbaaga-ga hoshii". So, "who wants a burger" can be ...


2

Maybe the particle you chose, に (ni), is not quite right. ボブにハンバーガーが欲しい (bobu-ni hanbaaga-ga hoshii) and ハンバーガーがボブに欲しい (hanbaaga-ga bobu-ni hoshii) would mean something like "(I) want a burger for Bob". It's I or someone else, not Bob, that is the implicit wanter, and the wanter likes to give the burger to Bob. Of course we usually don't say things like ...


2

I think the accepted answer by dainichi to this question answers it pretty well: It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano ...


-1

In this case, doesn't に just make きれい (a な adjective) an adverb? きれいにとれた You were able to take it beautifully.


3

俺の知ってるとは違う! Here, the particle と needs to follow a 体言, such as の (nominalizer), もの, 魔法, etc. You can say: 俺の知ってるのと違う! 俺の知ってるのとは違う! 俺の知ってる魔法と違う! or 俺の知ってる魔法とは違う! etc. The は is the comparative は, not the subject particle. The subject for the 違う is not 俺の知ってる魔法(the spell that I know) but "the spell that you just used", i.e. "an updated ...


2

は is a subject marker and emphasises what one is talking about. However, there is no requirement that the subject that preceds the は need be noun. It can also be a prepositional phrase. 彼女 : フランスには人気なの? 俺 : フランスには超人気! Taking your example. フランスには、is marking the subject of the phrase. It would be similar to the difference between these two phrases. In ...


9

The small ぇ in 手ぇふった is a way of indicating in writing the compensatory lengthening of the vowel in a single-mora word that sometimes occurs when the following case particle を is omitted in familiar speech. This is described in The Phonology of Japanese (Labrune 2012) in section 2.7.5, 'Prosodic Lengthening'. So as Yang Muye says, it means 手をふった.


-1

Colloquialism often amounts to simplify things by contracting or entirely omitting supposed-to-be-easily-understood elements. Thus those particles are the victims of such tendency. It is not recommended to follow that in formal documents. Does this make sense?


7

Both are 100% grammatical and natural-sounding, but since the two phrases are used in different situations/contexts, they are not interchangeable. 「犬{いぬ}と猫{ねこ}が好{す}き」 is said when "dogs and cats" have not specifically been mentioned between the speaker and listener. The best example of that situation would be when someone asks you the question: ...


5

"犬と猫が好き" = "I like dogs and cats (among animals.)" A typical answer to the question "what kind of animals do you like?" "犬も猫も好き" = "I like both dogs and cats." A possible answer to the question "which do you like better, dogs or cats?"


3

Let's minimize the example. そこには私一人しかいなかった。 そこには私しかいなかった。 私しかいなかった。 私しかいない。 Here しか is actually a particle, i.e. a binding particle (係助詞 kakari-joshi) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_particles



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