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3

I apologize for the errors. The ending is actually part of an old auxiliary ます, which is, I may say, its remnant. As the linked Kotobank page says, まする is an old ending / attributive form of 丁寧語{ていねいご}-ます-. Kotobank also says as follows: [補説]現代語では、仮定形「ますれ」とともにその使用は限られ、形式ばった堅苦しい表現に用いられるだけである。 Translation: [Additional Information]Today, together ...


5

It means that "soccer is (the) more interesting (of the two)". You can use AよりBのほうがおもしろい to say that "B is more interesting than A". In other words, より marks the thing that is "less interesting" and ほうが marks the thing that is "more interesting". Note that either the より phrase or the ほうが phrase can be omitted and left implicit. In this case, that is what ...


3

"だって" has two different meanings, ①"even" as ishikun answered, and ② "as I heard (someone says). You can use it in such a way; In case ①: 地球が丸いことなんて、3歳の子供だって知っている - The earth is round in shape, even 3-year old boy knows that. 僕だって"How do you do?"くらいは言える - Even I can speak (a basic thing like) How do you do?. パパだって僕に嘘ついたじゃん - Even dad told me a lie! In ...


3

This link definition #1, and this link. Translation: "Even I know that." or "I too know that".


3

The correct order according to your key is definitely strange Japanese (what is はでへで??). Also your suggestion is a bit weird because ”何では" is not correct. I would say: 会社へは何で行っていますか? Personally I think saying ”どうやって" may be more natural instead of ”何で", though.


1

This usage appears to be variant of "exhaustive と". We build an exhaustive list, which then behaves as any other plural noun would, and from which we then prompt for a choice. (Also, looking through GOO's and A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, it doesn't appear that any other と usage fits this example). If we assume that it is indeed an exhaustive と ...


1

The key word is "undefined". は is a topic marker, and you can't switch topics to something you don't know about yet. In 「これは何ですか?」, は is acceptable because これ is a specific, definite thing (at least in context) and 何 is about asking for more information about that thing. In「何が好きですか?」. the 何 isn't "definite" to the speaker because it is a "placeholder for ...


2

This is essentially an omission of a word, in this case being the verb following the particle. This is common in speech as answers to questions, and often involves omission of the main verb of a sentence. どこにいる? 友達の家に(いる。) 誰が勝ったか? 俺が(勝った。) 何語で話しかけられた? 英語で(話しかけられた。) It is also common, in speech, to add a similar clause after ...



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