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2

When we get in to complicated sentences the black and white grammatical rules become harder to apply but if we analyse the sentence: 母がどんな気持だったのか、子どもの私には知るべくもないことだった。 Then my non-native parsing is that: 母がどんな気持だったのか、="topic/subject"(I'll come back to that) ~ことだった= nominaliser linked to the "topic/subject" 知るべくもない= item being ...


6

笑わせた(笑わせる) is the causative form of 笑う(笑った), so これを笑わせた。 means "(I) made it laugh." 僕を笑わせた。 means "(Something) made me laugh", so logically speaking this statement would be correct in your situation. これで笑わせた。 would mean "(I) made (someone) laugh with this." (I think the で works as an instrumental/具格 case here) (僕に)これで笑わせた。 ...


8

If a Japanese sentence contains a noun with high animacy or (linguistic) sympathy and a noun with less animacy or sympathy, the former takes the position of the subject. If there are you and the menu, you have to compose a sentence with you being the subject. If you say これで笑わせた, people only think you made someone laugh using the menu or someone made ...


2

Edit: I just remembered that there is a には which can not be replaced by に or は. It's similar to にとっては, which might fit better here. e.g. それは私にはどうでもいいことだ その頃の私には、夢にも思っていなかった事だ This kind of には is inherently contrastive so you always use は. (But にとって is still contrastive without は, it's a litter hard to explain.) Whether this には in included in the scope of ...


5

「いや、これがおかしくて・・・。」could be what you want. "Well, (I am laughing) because this looks funny."


2

I think 少しでも is 少し + でも meaning "even if a little". In this sentence, it would apply to how the hiding place would make it hard to become a target. Translating quite literally: 少しでもターゲットになりにくそうな僻地 remote places which seemed like making it harder to become targets, even if by a little As for と, I'm not completely sure but it may mean "attempt to ...


1

Although your application of grammatical rules is on the whole technically correct you need to consider context. A is thanking B for doing something for him (not anybody else). This affects what information you need to include in the sentence: 私 does not usually take が, 私は is more common, if it needs to be said at all. So; If you are saying thank you ...


0

Yes, when the subject of a sentence of neutral description (現象文) is pronoun これ・それ or a noun modified with この・その. (Opening the refrigerator) あっ、この納豆 φ 腐ってる! Without この that would be あっ、納豆が腐ってる!. この納豆が腐ってる is "it is this natto that is rotten" and would be ungrammatical for a sentence of neutral description. この納豆は… would be a contrasive sentence.


-1

I don't know if this is correct, but I think the construction 習おうと思っている could be translated literally as 'I'm thinking (to myself): let's learn'. 習おう is the same construction you would use to suggest doing something. You could for example say 日本語を習おう (meaning: Let's learn Japanese!)


2

You're 90% there. Let's take your list in order, shall we? 1. Quotation Particle As you noted, if you see it followed by a verb indicating expression (思う、言う、話す, etc.) then it's being used in this manner. 2. Conditional Particle The following sentence is the way I was taught to use this one: 秋になると、葉が落ちる。 "When autumn comes, the leaves fall." In ...


1

カレン: バイオリンを習おうと思っているんですが、いい先生を知りませんか。 As written, が is being used as a gentle lead-in. It's adding a sense of "I'm probably bothering you by asking, but...".


4

Your translation is correct. However, this が isn't the "but" one. It's the "softener" one. I can't think of a way to translate it (if there even is one), but it's often used to make one's own desires/actions seem less direct and a little more humble. Ex. 聞きたいことがあるんですが... → There's something I'd like to ask you... The difference between ...


5

ころ means "around", "about", or "(at) the time". So it translates to: At the time I'd just come back to London, ... Note that it's come to London, not come back from London. Other common usages include 子供のころ → When I was a child 高校生のころ → When I was in high school


9

We are actually discussing TWO different kinds of 「や」 here, which is probably why you are more confused than you should be. In 「くつろいでくれや」, the 「や」 is a colloquial sentence-ending particle for 1) imperative, 2) invitation and 3) request. You are saying "(Please) make yourself at home." In 「それが実はアイロンではないからや」, the 「や」 is a dialectal sentence-ender mostly for ...


1

I conjecture it is from ぬ <- の. Why? Okinawan actually has a regular sound change ぬ -> ん. For example, 犬{いぬ} -> いん. So I presume that somehow the regular sound changes got applied twice, and you get ん <- ぬ <- の.


0

If you list to people speaking, usually after they say は there is a slight pause. This also happens in English when we are staying something...... and then want to say something about it. 医療用や通信用など、用途は広い。 This sounds like a line from a documentary. In medicine, communication - its uses ..... are VAST! The point of the sentence is that the usages are vast, ...


-2

It's a small version of の just as you guessed. This happens a lot in Japanese, I wouldn't be surprised if you hear it elsewhere in Okinawa. Searching the net, I found that the word has been translated to normal Japanese: ウチナーンチュ is literally equal to 沖縄の人 we already know ウチナー is Okinawa and チュ is person, so the only remaining thing is the it could be is ...


0

Adding just a bit more to Mr. Kawaguchi's answer, I think that 家を出る is usually heard in a situation where someone (a teenager, a spouse) leaves the home where they are "supposed to be", often under not good circumstances (running away from home, domestic violence, imminent divorce, ...). C.f. 家出 In this case, the situation is about a presumably unmarried ...


2

First, 全部の人 is an obscure expression because 全部 is a counter for objects* (that said, 私が知っている人全部のうち sounds to some extent better for some reason), so I'd translate "all of the people" to 私が知っているすべての人 or 私が知っている人全員、私が知っている人すべて. As for your question, yes, the sentence with うち is correct too and you can omit the particle で after うち. If you use に instead of で, ...


3

から is really only used to designate the location/point/time from which things start, whereas を is a rather generic particle. Because of this, から makes the reader mentally picture a time range (今夜から明日にかけて雪になります), a motion (東京から大阪へは3時間かかります), a coverage (揺りかごから墓場まで), etc. In contrast, を just doesn't have this sense of motion/breadth/width. And so when this ...



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