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9

We are actually discussing TWO different kinds of 「や」 here, which is probably why you are more confused than you should be. In 「くつろいでくれや」, the 「や」 is a colloquial sentence-ending particle for 1) imperative, 2) invitation and 3) request. You are saying "(Please) make yourself at home." In 「それが実はアイロンではないからや」, the 「や」 is a dialectal sentence-ender mostly for ...


8

If a Japanese sentence contains a noun with high animacy or (linguistic) sympathy and a noun with less animacy or sympathy, the former takes the position of the subject. If there are you and the menu, you have to compose a sentence with you being the subject. If you say これで笑わせた, people only think you made someone laugh using the menu or someone made ...


6

笑わせた(笑わせる) is the causative form of 笑う(笑った), so これを笑わせた。 means "(I) made it laugh." 僕を笑わせた。 means "(Something) made me laugh", so logically speaking this statement would be correct in your situation. これで笑わせた。 would mean "(I) made (someone) laugh with this." (I think the で works as an instrumental/具格 case here) (僕に)これで笑わせた。 ...


5

ころ means "around", "about", or "(at) the time". So it translates to: At the time I'd just come back to London, ... Note that it's come to London, not come back from London. Other common usages include 子供のころ → When I was a child 高校生のころ → When I was in high school


4

Your translation is correct. However, this が isn't the "but" one. It's the "softener" one. I can't think of a way to translate it (if there even is one), but it's often used to make one's own desires/actions seem less direct and a little more humble. Ex. 聞きたいことがあるんですが... → There's something I'd like to ask you... The difference between ...


3

Generally speaking a sentence ending in の will be less formal equivalent of the "の/んです" construction. Hence: Questions ending in の, as in your examples, are less formal equivalents of the same questions ending in んですか. Likewise Questions ending in the plain/past form are less formal equivalents of (in your examples) questions ending with ...


3

から is really only used to designate the location/point/time from which things start, whereas を is a rather generic particle. Because of this, から makes the reader mentally picture a time range (今夜から明日にかけて雪になります), a motion (東京から大阪へは3時間かかります), a coverage (揺りかごから墓場まで), etc. In contrast, を just doesn't have this sense of motion/breadth/width. And so when this ...


2

First, 全部の人 is an obscure expression because 全部 is a counter for objects* (that said, 私が知っている人全部のうち sounds to some extent better for some reason), so I'd translate "all of the people" to 私が知っているすべての人 or 私が知っている人全員、私が知っている人すべて. As for your question, yes, the sentence with うち is correct too and you can omit the particle で after うち. If you use に instead of で, ...


2

I think 少しでも is 少し + でも meaning "even if a little". In this sentence, it would apply to how the hiding place would make it hard to become a target. Translating quite literally: 少しでもターゲットになりにくそうな僻地 remote places which seemed like making it harder to become targets, even if by a little As for と, I'm not completely sure but it may mean "attempt to ...


2

You're 90% there. Let's take your list in order, shall we? 1. Quotation Particle As you noted, if you see it followed by a verb indicating expression (思う、言う、話す, etc.) then it's being used in this manner. 2. Conditional Particle The following sentence is the way I was taught to use this one: 秋になると、葉が落ちる。 "When autumn comes, the leaves fall." In ...


2

Edit: I just remembered that there is a には which can not be replaced by に or は. It's similar to にとっては, which might fit better here. e.g. それは私にはどうでもいいことだ その頃の私には、夢にも思っていなかった事だ This kind of には is inherently contrastive so you always use は. (But にとって is still contrastive without は, it's a litter hard to explain.) Whether this には in included in the scope of ...


1

When we get in to complicated sentences the black and white grammatical rules become harder to apply but if we analyse the sentence: 母がどんな気持だったのか、子どもの私には知るべくもないことだった。 Then my non-native parsing is that: 母がどんな気持だったのか、="topic/subject"(I'll come back to that) ~ことだった= nominaliser linked to the "topic/subject" 知るべくもない= item being ...


1

Although your application of grammatical rules is on the whole technically correct you need to consider context. A is thanking B for doing something for him (not anybody else). This affects what information you need to include in the sentence: 私 does not usually take が, 私は is more common, if it needs to be said at all. So; If you are saying thank you ...



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