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9

The small ぇ in 手ぇふった is a way of indicating in writing the compensatory lengthening of the vowel in a single-mora word that sometimes occurs when the following case particle を is omitted in familiar speech. This is described in The Phonology of Japanese (Labrune 2012) in section 2.7.5, 'Prosodic Lengthening'. So as Yang Muye says, it means 手をふった.


7

Both are 100% grammatical and natural-sounding, but since the two phrases are used in different situations/contexts, they are not interchangeable. 「犬{いぬ}と猫{ねこ}が好{す}き」 is said when "dogs and cats" have not specifically been mentioned between the speaker and listener. The best example of that situation would be when someone asks you the question: ...


5

"犬と猫が好き" = "I like dogs and cats (among animals.)" A typical answer to the question "what kind of animals do you like?" "犬も猫も好き" = "I like both dogs and cats." A possible answer to the question "which do you like better, dogs or cats?"


3

Let's minimize the example. そこには私一人しかいなかった。 そこには私しかいなかった。 私しかいなかった。 私しかいない。 Here しか is actually a particle, i.e. a binding particle (係助詞 kakari-joshi) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_particles


3

俺の知ってるとは違う! Here, the particle と needs to follow a 体言, such as の (nominalizer), もの, 魔法, etc. You can say: 俺の知ってるのと違う! 俺の知ってるのとは違う! 俺の知ってる魔法と違う! or 俺の知ってる魔法とは違う! etc. The は is the comparative は, not the subject particle. The subject for the 違う is not 俺の知ってる魔法(the spell that I know) but "the spell that you just used", i.e. "an updated ...


2

In the first place, "hanbaaga-ga" as in "hanbaaga-ga hoshii" is not the subject. So it doesn't mean a burger is wanted. Both the subject and the object of "hoshii" are indicated by ga, in other words, when you express "bobu-wa hanbaaga-ga hoshii" without any topicalized elements, it becomes "bobu-ga hanbaaga-ga hoshii". So, "who wants a burger" can be ...


2

Maybe the particle you chose, に (ni), is not quite right. ボブにハンバーガーが欲しい (bobu-ni hanbaaga-ga hoshii) and ハンバーガーがボブに欲しい (hanbaaga-ga bobu-ni hoshii) would mean something like "(I) want a burger for Bob". It's I or someone else, not Bob, that is the implicit wanter, and the wanter likes to give the burger to Bob. Of course we usually don't say things like ...


2

I think the accepted answer by dainichi to this question answers it pretty well: It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano ...


2

は is a subject marker and emphasises what one is talking about. However, there is no requirement that the subject that preceds the は need be noun. It can also be a prepositional phrase. 彼女 : フランスには人気なの? 俺 : フランスには超人気! Taking your example. フランスには、is marking the subject of the phrase. It would be similar to the difference between these two phrases. In ...


2

I think you can use へ or に more or less interchangeably in your examples without any real change in meaning, but に is probably the more common choice. 1a. 川の向こうへ渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 1b. 川の向こうに渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 2a. 友達とレストランへ行きます。 2b. 友達とレストランに行きます。 3a. 来月国へ帰ります。 3b. 来月国に帰ります。 Even if you use へ instead of に, you wouldn't be returning in ...


1

「読んでて」 is the very common colloquial contraction of 「読んでいて」. This elision of 「い」 happens all the time when we are speaking. Contrary to what seems to me a popular belief among J-learners, we use 「~~て/でいる」 verb form to describe a habitual action. (I have seen/heard many J-learners use the dictionary form instead for this purpose.) 「マンガばっかり読んで(い)る」← ...



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