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7

「[親公認]{おやこうにん}で[付]{つ}き[合]{あ}えるこの[状況]{じょうきょう}だけで、[奇跡]{きせき}と[思]{おも}わなくっちゃいけない。」 「だけで」=「だけでも」 in this context. It means "even just", expressing the fact that a seemingly bare minimal condition would actually look quite satisfactory if one tried to see it from another perspective. "Even just this situation where we can go out with our parents' ...


6

The way I have come to understand よ and ね, is that they mark ownership over a piece of information being used in conversation. よ marks a piece of information as being the speaker's, while ね marks it as being someone else's. This is known as epistemics within conversation analysis. For instance, if we look at the phrase "お兄さんは歯医者だよね?", the speaker expresses ...


5

According to デジタル大辞泉 and 大辞林, this や is a 終助詞 (sentence ending particle) rather than a 感動詞 (interjection). 「 3⃣-2 軽く言い放すような気持ちを表す。『もう、どうでもいいや』」(デジタル大辞泉) 「四-② 軽く言い放つような気持ち,または,なげやりな気持ちを表す。『まあ,いいや』『今さらどうしようもないや』」(大辞林) I think や as an "interjection expressing surprise" is something like... 「( 感 ) ① 驚いた時に発する語。『や、こんな所にあった』」(大辞林) / ...


2

That would be 「ペンがある。」 100% of the time. 「ペンがある。」 (= "There is a pen.") is a statement about 'what is there' or 'what the speaker has just found at a particular location". It is not a statement that gives some kind of description about either pens in general or a particular pen. If you desire to make a further statement about the pen after you have found ...


2

I feel that the distinctions between は and が are one of the hardest parts to learn about the Japanese language, so I'll try to keep things mostly focused on this example. ペンはある Here "は” marks ”ペン" as a "topic", rather a "subject", but what that really translates into is a feeling of: There is a pen (but there isn't a ....) This is because that ...


2

I'll answer in English, since I assume your native language is English and some nuance of my answer might be lost if it was in Japanese. Messages on this board are mostly in English as well, with a few exceptions. Yes, there are many cases where particles can be omitted in conversation. For example, は and を are frequently omitted:      僕はりんごを食べるよ。 ...



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