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On the one hand, を in this case indicates the direct object. You are talking Japanese. On the other hand で indicates the means by which you accomplish the action. You are talking in Japanese, or talking using Japanese. Note that both sentences could be extended : 電話で日本語を話す : I talk Japanese on the phone (using the phone). 日本語で起{お}こった事{こと}を話す : I talk in ...


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漢字が持つ is a relative clause. It has a gap in object position: 漢字-が __-を 持つ The gap is filled semantically by the following noun phrase 体系的なつながり: ① ​  漢字-が 体系的なつながり-を 持つ   ② [ 漢字-が ________-を 持つ ] 体系的なつながり These can be translated into English: ① Kanji have a systematic relationship. ② the systematic relationship [ which kanji have __ ] ...



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