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[V1] + ては + [V2] or [V1] + では + [V2] is a fixed expression that describes two actions (V1, V2) are repeatedly happening in rapid succession. See ては definition 3: 3 二つの動作・作用などが対になって繰り返される意を表す。「幼い頃は電車を見ては喜んでいた」「姉はいつも洋服を脱いでは着て楽しんでいる」 So this sentence means that someone is repeating the two actions (壁面に罅【ひび】を刻む and パーツを外気に晒【さら】す) again and again.


The order does not matter in Japanese The only rule is that the verb must come last (aside from sentence-ending particles). The following are all correct and mean the same thing: 6時に私がケーキを食べた ケーキを私が6時に食べた 私が6時にケーキを食べた They all mean "I ate (the) cake at 6:00". In English, which relies on word order to determine grammar roles of words, flipping ...


Marking it with は is certainly not wrong, and would in fact be natural. It doesn't change the meaning, but if the は is stressed, it will contrast yesterday to all other days, and will thus put stress on the time: 昨日勉強しましたか - Did you study yesterday? (Plain question) 昨日は勉強しましたか - Did you study yesterday? (As opposed to any other day) However, if the は ...


を denotes a direct object in a sentence. は denotes the subject. Here, えんぴつ is the subject of the sentence, so it should have a は next to it.

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