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[V1] + ては + [V2] or [V1] + では + [V2] is a fixed expression that describes two actions (V1, V2) are repeatedly happening in rapid succession. See ては definition 3: 3 二つの動作・作用などが対になって繰り返される意を表す。「幼い頃は電車を見ては喜んでいた」「姉はいつも洋服を脱いでは着て楽しんでいる」 So this sentence means that someone is repeating the two actions (壁面に罅【ひび】を刻む and パーツを外気に晒【さら】す) again and again.


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The order does not matter in Japanese The only rule is that the verb must come last (aside from sentence-ending particles). The following are all correct and mean the same thing: 6時に私がケーキを食べた ケーキを私が6時に食べた 私が6時にケーキを食べた They all mean "I ate (the) cake at 6:00". In English, which relies on word order to determine grammar roles of words, flipping ...


4

Marking it with は is certainly not wrong, and would in fact be natural. It doesn't change the meaning, but if the は is stressed, it will contrast yesterday to all other days, and will thus put stress on the time: 昨日勉強しましたか - Did you study yesterday? (Plain question) 昨日は勉強しましたか - Did you study yesterday? (As opposed to any other day) However, if the は ...


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を denotes a direct object in a sentence. は denotes the subject. Here, えんぴつ is the subject of the sentence, so it should have a は next to it.



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