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朝ご飯は何を食べましたか。 This is correct. You're literally saying, "As for breakfast, what did you eat?" 朝食に何を食べたのですか? Google is using the particle に to indicate at in a similar manner to that of 今週末に (this weekend), however, に is usually omitted for relative times. They're both grammatically correct. "At breakfast, what did you eat?"


The bad news-は we don't really have an effective way to distinguish them. The good news-は in fact you don't have to distinguish them. The particle は's function could be loosely described as "singling out one thing you and me know as the current focus", that is, every usage theoretically carries contrastive overtones, as long as it has possible competitors ...


My suggestion is to keep using は and that is the most natural way that I can think of as a native Japanese speaker. The description of は and が by Kuno (1973) is widely used. Kuno (1973) mentions は indicates the known information and が indicates the unknown information but it is actually similar to distinguish a/an and the in English for instance if English ...

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