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Both are 100% grammatical and natural-sounding, but since the two phrases are used in different situations/contexts, they are not interchangeable. 「犬{いぬ}と猫{ねこ}が好{す}き」 is said when "dogs and cats" have not specifically been mentioned between the speaker and listener. The best example of that situation would be when someone asks you the question: ...


"犬と猫が好き" = "I like dogs and cats (among animals.)" A typical answer to the question "what kind of animals do you like?" "犬も猫も好き" = "I like both dogs and cats." A possible answer to the question "which do you like better, dogs or cats?"


As you already noticed that the と is used as the quote marker in the first sentence. That means 雨がいつ降るか is written as the person's thought, which makes the sentence more subjective. On the contrary, the second sentence sounds more objective. Relatively with or without personal feelings might be the crucial difference between the two sentences. By the way, ...


怪物を退治し、人々を救い、囚われの姫様を助け出す、最高に格好良い英雄達のように自分もなりたいと、当時の僕は本気でそんな夢を抱いていた。 = 『怪物を退治し、人々を救い、囚われの姫様を助け出す、最高に格好良い英雄達のように自分もなりたい。』と、当時の僕は本気でそんな夢を抱いていた。 This 「と」 is the quotative particle. The inside of the 『 』 is what the speaker seriously thought to himself back then. It is what 「そんな夢」 refers to as well.


Consider the following chain of sentences. 自分もなりたいと思った。 自分もなりたいと、僕は思った。 自分もなりたいと、当時の僕は思った。 自分もなりたいと、当時の僕は本気で思った。 自分もなりたいと、当時の僕は本気でそんな夢を抱いていた。 Now consider it in reverse order. Are you still in doubt as to whether と here is the quoting particle?

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