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28

I've asked this very question in the past and my research led me to the following definition which (surprisingly) differs from every other answer here so far: ~となる expresses a discrete change, while ~になる can express either a discrete or a continuous change. You can feasibly use ~になる for everything, since it covers all cases, but in cases where you want to ...


11

Basically, を follows a noun (eg. "車") or a nominal group (eg. "私が運転してる車"), not a proposition. (This) と follows a proposition, not a noun or nominal group. 行こうを思う is thus not grammatical. You'd want 行くことを思う for a grammatically correct sentence. It would mean that you think of the concept of going. It is different from thinking of you going, which would be ...


11

The most usual way is to attach と to all alternatives except for the last one: りんごとオレンジが好きだ。 りんごとオレンジとパパイヤが好きだ。 (Unrelated note: “papaya” is usually パパイヤ rather than パパヤ in Japanese.) Attaching と to all alternatives including the last one is acceptable. りんごとオレンジとが好きだ。 りんごとオレンジとパパイヤとが好きだ。 I heard that in older days, と was always attached to ...


8

I think it can be replaced with は and というのは here, as in [2] [1] at this Daijisen definition. According to the 日本語文型辞典, this って indicates a subject, and can be an informal way in speech to state meanings/definitions or to add value/emphasis. When used after nouns and adjectives to state meanings/definitions, this って can correspond with とは. When used ...


8

This is obviously a contraction of 寝てると. Not sure if this pertains to certain dialects/age groups etc. though. Haven't heard this one myself in real life.


8

Here is how I would categorize these usages. There are probably other ways to explain them, and I do not claim that mine is the best in any sense. (1) ~ようと思う, ~ようと考える, and ~ようと決める are just the usual use of the particle と which signifies quotation, and there is nothing special about the combination of a volitional and と. For example, I think that particle ...


8

I'm not sure what's confusing you but... Japanese often omits the subject when it's obvious from the context, so your first sentence can be read as: 『日本の中で食べ物は高い』と(私は)思う。 (I think that food is expensive in Japan.) The と is the case particle as a quotative marker. Likewise, your second sentence can be read as: 『さけおさんは酒を飲まない』と(私は)思う。 (I think ...


7

From what I have learned and observed, ~となる implies a "suppose if" conditional, something similar to "suppose if it is the case that [X] would become [Y] then" where as ~になる simply means "[X] becomes [Y]". 「請求書のお支払いは現金のみとなりますので、ご了承くださいませ。」 would mean something like "Suppose if you need to pay your purchase by cash, we hope to get your understanding.". This ...


7

I feel like this has been asked before, but I can't find it if it has. You've got it spot on with と being the quotation marker; that is Xと言う means that X was literally (more or less) what was said. Using を is more about the meaning/gist/essence of what is said. Here's a pair that I always remember to help distinguish them. なにを言ってるのか? → "What are ...


7

へと is used when you are directing your audience's attention to the content that comes after the と for emphasis. 「やや強意の副詞的表現に属することを表す」 Example: 透【す】き通【とお】るような青【あお】空【ぞら】の中【なか】へと白【しろ】いボールが吸【す】い込まれていく The white ball disappeared into the crystal clear blue sky 透き通るような青空の中 へ 白いボールが吸い込まれていく Without the と it is simply a statement of fact. Q: "What did the ...


6

Pretty finely nuanced, I'd say. と is a quotative particle, but is also used to described the manner in which something is done, often figurative. ~となる can be used to mean "become like a ~" while ~になる is literally "become a ~".


6

I think what's really going on here can be traced back to the two different ways 形容動詞 (けいようどうし: adjectival nouns or "な-adjectives") were inflected. If we look under the 連用形 (れんようけい: the "adverbial inflection", for lack of a better term) column under the first table on this Wikibooks page detailing Classical Japanese inflection patterns, we find the following ...


6

The examples are very interesting. It looks like, whenever と知る can be used, it means "find out" rather than "know". Another way to say this is, whenever と知る can be used, you can replace the verb with 分かる. With "find out", you cannot have duration, in other words, you can say: I knew that theorem for two days, (but I forgot it). but you cannot say * ...


6

I am going to post a rather simplistic answer just covering the basics.  There are cases (1) where adding a 「と」 is appropriate, (2) where adding a 「と」 is inappropriate, and (3) where only adding a 「に」, not a 「と」 is appropriate. 1) When an onomatopoeia functions adverbially to modify a verb, a 「と」 is often added. In very informal speech, on the ...


5

It's quite the equivalent of "you know" in colloquial English. One's favourite song, you know, it seems never to change. As such, it's quite a theme particle, as @cypher mentioned.


5

と is the normal one, って is a colloquial variant of it, て is substandard at best and may be ungrammatical.


5

Instead of だと, it should be broken down into だ(copula) and と(particle). と here is used as a particle that indicates an uncontrollable event or state will follow after what the particle marks. Sometimes parsed as if but not really accurate since it's not really a conditional. Also can be parsed as when. 日本だと[A] would mean "if/when in Japan, [A] follows as a ...


5

Just adding to an existing answer because I typically don't think of these two as comparisons, I look at it from a different angle than the OP. I typically think of this as more of expectation rather than comparison for ~にしては, although comparison could be valid as well but I never think of it like that. So as @istrasci pointed out, ~にしては means "Considering ...


5

Francis Drohan's A handbook of Japanese usage has four whole pages on the usages of と, so I don't think a comprehensive answer is appropriate here. But a few key points: There are two kinds of と: one is a case particle (格助詞), and another is a conjunctive particle (接続助詞). In both your examples, と is being used as a case particle. According to Drohan, there ...


5

The difference between 「~~ために」 and 「~~ためにと」 can be very subtle at times; nevertheless a difference does exist. To use 「~~ために」, the speaker needs to be 100% certain of what the reason for an action is. The action-taker may be either the speaker himself or another person. If the latter is the case, the speaker already possesses enough information to ...


5

It's like 咲も必要が無い上に興味が向かないと言って料理はしなかった。 咲も必要が無い上に興味が向かないという理由で料理はしなかった。 The と is the case particle as a quotative marker. The reasons 咲 didn't cook are 必要が無い and 興味が向かない. By the way, the ここ in ここ2年 means "these (two years)", not "here (location)", and you're missing 一人 (alone) in 一人暮らしをしていたけど・・・.


4

The と in (1, 2) is the same と as used in quoting. It leads a subordinate clause. Unlike predicates like 言う 'say', which can take direct or indirect quotation, predicates like 合図する 'signal' cannot take quotation. It expresses an accompanied message. Without と, it is ambiguous. It may be a purposive clause or a clause expressing the accompanied message. ...


4

~にしては means "Considering X is Y, ..." トムはお金持ちにしては、あまりぜいたくな人生をおくらない (Considering Tom is pretty rich, he doesn't lead a very luxurious lifestyle ~としては mean "As a / In the capacity of X, ..." 弁護士であるわたしとしては、それを勧めるわけにはいかない (As a lawyer, I cannot recommend (doing) that) So the latter is when the thing actually is the thing you're comparing to.


4

だと!? at the end of a sentence, e.g. 何だと!? "say what!?" can indicate shock or disbelief, e.g. "you say there are three people there!?" Edit: The だと seems to have come from だって. According to Daijisen's last definition: [終助]《係助詞「だって」の文末用法から》引用句に付く。相手の言葉に対して、非難・驚きの気持ちを込めて強調する意を表す。 [final auxiliary] 《from the binding particle だって's end-of-sentence rules ...


4

but can it also be applied to verbs that imply some kind of thinking process other than 思う? Yes, all of them, I think. Do these make grammatical sense? Yes. But I wonder how to say the third one. The translation is weird… With 感じる、 I think that a better example is もう死んでいたと感じた I felt that he was already dead (say, by touching him) If so, ...


4

I do not know what “adverbialisation” means, because the particle と which signifies quotation, change of state, and supposition also makes an adverbial phrase. This と signifies a limit on something in a similar way to “even” in English, but its usage is restricted compared to “even.” と is attached to a small quantity and used with negation, and means that ...


4

It's best to consider 二度と as an adverb on its own, meaning '(not) again'. The 二度 here is pronounced 「にど」, but the meaning aligns with its alternate reading, 「ふたたび」 -- which is, of course, usually written 再び in modern Japanese. The と here feels very similar in usage to the と in an onomatopoeic expression like きっぱりと [an intuition which seems to be confirmed, ...


4

許可 'permit' is not an activity done to each other. A permits B. Asymmetric. Therefore, the sentence should be taken as your first interpretation: 'Friend One and Friend Two have given permission to have their feeds be subscribed'. If it is particularly necessary to express mutual activity, the sentence would have been [Friend One]さんと[Friend Two]さんが(お)互いのフィード ...


4

~となる is also limited to nouns, I believe. The way I've heard it most often used is when the thing it becomes kind of fulfills some purpose. Kind of hard to explain. Here's my best example: 私は先生になります → I will become a teacher. 寄付となる金を貯金します → I deposit all money that will be (used for) donated. Don't know if that helps at all.


4

I expect to see/hear「税率が10パーセントへと下がる」on newspaper or TV news. I'd say「税率が10パーセントに下がる」in normal conversation. (I'm not sure if we say「税率が10パーセントへ下がる」.) 「来年度へと先送りする」「来年度へ先送りする」are what I expect to see/hear on newspaper or TV news. I think I use「来年度に先送りする」in daily conversation, and I wouldn't say 「来年度へと先送りされる」when I talk casually. To me,「旅客機は東京へと旅立った」sounds ...



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