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1

It is not the animacy of the object that determines the particle choice: It is the transitivity of the verb that does. 「ほんをよむ」(to read a book): 「よむ」 in this phrase is a transitive verb; therefore, 「を」 is used. 「おとこをなぐる」(to smack a dude): 「を」 is used for the same reason as above. That 「おとこ」 is animate has nothng to do with it. 「おくさんにキスする」(to ...


1

「には」 kind of means "for" here. The [三省堂]{さんせいどう} definition here says that it can mean にとっては, which is basically what's happening here. 「でも、アザラシにはよかったかも!」 ("But I suppose it's good for the seals [that they're going away from the polar bears]!") 「[君]{きみ}には[簡単]{かんたん}でも、ぼくには[難]{むずか}しい」 ("It's simple for you, but difficult for me.")


2

I think you can use へ or に more or less interchangeably in your examples without any real change in meaning, but に is probably the more common choice. 1a. 川の向こうへ渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 1b. 川の向こうに渡る橋は一つしかありませんでした。 2a. 友達とレストランへ行きます。 2b. 友達とレストランに行きます。 3a. 来月国へ帰ります。 3b. 来月国に帰ります。 Even if you use へ instead of に, you wouldn't be returning in ...


0

「に」 being colloquial and 「へ」 being for writing, not really. You can have colloquial writing, for example. I think your friend is mixing spoken language with colloquial language. Spoken would be the language that comes out in the form of sound. Being sponken doesn't automatically implies that it is colloquial. You can have formal, polite spoken language, ...


2

In the first place, "hanbaaga-ga" as in "hanbaaga-ga hoshii" is not the subject. So it doesn't mean a burger is wanted. Both the subject and the object of "hoshii" are indicated by ga, in other words, when you express "bobu-wa hanbaaga-ga hoshii" without any topicalized elements, it becomes "bobu-ga hanbaaga-ga hoshii". So, "who wants a burger" can be ...


2

Maybe the particle you chose, に (ni), is not quite right. ボブにハンバーガーが欲しい (bobu-ni hanbaaga-ga hoshii) and ハンバーガーがボブに欲しい (hanbaaga-ga bobu-ni hoshii) would mean something like "(I) want a burger for Bob". It's I or someone else, not Bob, that is the implicit wanter, and the wanter likes to give the burger to Bob. Of course we usually don't say things like ...



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