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朝ご飯は何を食べましたか。 This is correct. You're literally saying, "As for breakfast, what did you eat?" 朝食に何を食べたのですか? Google is using the particle に to indicate at in a similar manner to that of 今週末に (this weekend), however, に is usually omitted for relative times. They're both grammatically correct. "At breakfast, what did you eat?"


The particle に, rather than を, appears because the valency of the verb 会う requires it. Instead of に, the particle と is also possible. English meet can appear with a bare object (I met him), or the preposition with (I met with him). While most valencies are constant across languages (most transitive Japanese verbs are also transitive verbs in English), there ...


The particle に is a "grammar" word, so it is not a good idea thinking of it as "meaning" any list of English words. For particular verbs, you have to learn "case-by-case" what particles it uses to hook to different types of object. (This is very like the way you just have to learn which preposition to use in French, or which case in languages like German or ...


The に particle is literally in/on/to, as in つくえの 上に 本が あります。(here it is 'on') その へやに ねこが います。(here it is 'in') ともだちに 『こんにちは』と あいさつします。(here it is 'to') And に does not necessarily come only for います/あります。 As for why を did not come in the place of に in ともだちに あいます, it's one of the rules of the language. を occurs for objects/jobs/nouns whereas に occurs for ...

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