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1

I don't think there are any な-adj in the third sentence at all (only nouns, which function like な adjectives), に is used as a general location particle, and is not limited to actual places, the first clause in 箸を櫂にして川を上っていきました which is 箸を櫂にして would mean, "Chopsticks, in (in the form of a) paddle, is done" "In the way of a paddle, chopsticks were being ...


2

I think you're actually asking about にする and not just に. に isn't a verb after all. It has a lot of uses, each probably worth a question of their own. Here are some definitions from Jisho.org: AをBにする to place, or raise, person A to a post or status B to transform A to B; to make A into B; to exchange A for B to make use of A for B; to view ...


5

You are making a mistake lots of people make – you are trying to think about what your sentence will look like in English. You might do this with most European languages, but you definitively can't do this with Asian languages. So as you said, your first sentence is correct: 金曜日にケーキを食べる. Basically, all you did in your second sentence was indicate that ...


2

Semantically, it means 切り出したかったのに切り出せず. (切り出す = to broach (a topic)) [dictionary form of a verb] + に + [nai-form] + ない is an uncommon, emphatic, and literary set phrase which means "want to ~ but can't", "too bad/extraordinary to ~", etc. 泣くに泣けない状況 a situation too bad to cry 笑うに笑えない話 a story too extraordinary to laugh at この料理は食うに食えない this dish is ...


2

This is more of a grammatical construction where you have a verb in base form plus に followed by a negative potential form of the same verb. It basically means that for some prohibiting reason, you couldn't do ~~~ even if you wanted to. 終電を逃したから、帰るには帰れない。(Paraphrasing, "I missed the last train and I have no way to get home.") It looks like in the sentence ...


5

「Verb + に(or にも) + Same Verb in potential form + ず」 is a very common phrase pattern that expresses one's inability or hesitation to perform the action described by the verb. See 一-2 in: https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%AB%E3%82%82-592921#E3.83.87.E3.82.B8.E3.82.BF.E3.83.AB.E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.B3.89 「[切]{き}り[出]{だ}すに切り出せず、[今日]{きょう}まできてしまいました。」 ...



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