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5

This か is the same as the particle we see all the time at the end of an interrogative sentence. It's also used in a noun clause like so: いつ車を売りますか? When do they sell the cars? いつ車を売るか (noun clause) when they sell the cars 今日は日曜日ですか? Is it Sunday today? 今日は日曜日か (noun clause) whether it is Sunday today Therefore, "車の会社がいつごろこのような自動運転の車を売り始めるか" ...


4

の sounds a little feminine but you can use it if you're male - so long as のか could also be used (兄弟いるの? you can say but not どういう事ですの?) It also has somewhat of an implication of asking for an explanation sometimes (何やってるの? - What are you doing [and why]?) Asking without a particle is probably most common informally - 手伝う? It has no real hidden implications, ...


3

Most textbooks note that using か to mark two noun alternatives, the last one can be omitted. You are probably talking about something like this: ステーキか、すしにします。 / ステーキか、すしを食べます。 (I'll have either steak or sushi.) However, you cannot omit the second か in a sentence like below, even though か marks two noun alternatives: ...


2

Some words indeed have strong association with gender, but those are less and less heard from real, especially younger, people. 行こうか It doesn't sound particularly male or female, but do sound drier or more unemotional than other possible expressions, thus I can imagine male and female speaker would use this phrase in different situations. (If I were ...


2

None of them are neither masculine speech nor feminine speech.


1

Think of this か as a の that is nominalizing a question. デパートはどこにあるか、知{し}っていますか? Do you know where is the department store? In spoken casual conversation I've heard native speakers drop the か and communicate just as effectively, but I would recommend always using か.



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