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6

かのよう(だ) translates as ‘(seems) as if...’ or ‘(seems) as if perhaps...’ while (depending on the sentence) ようだ can be less conjectural. …なにもなかったかのように… ‘as if nothing had happened’[1] …なにもなかったように… ‘it looked like nothing had happened’ However, in counter-factual statements, ようだ can lend this meaning all by itself. Often (as in the sentence of the ...


6

If you drop か, your rising intonation will indicate a question. 今何時ですか。- canonical polite form 今何時です- slightly less formal, feminine form. 今何時- casual 今何時だ- demanding and rude. Doesn't require rising intonation. Just watch something with gangsters and you'll hear it :)


5

の/ん often indicate that the speaker is attempting to explain or account for some fact. This can connect the question to a previous statement made by the addressee. For example: A: (Wow, some of the people who participated in the tournament were really good!) B: 誰が参加したんですか。 Here B would like to know which people inspired A to make that statement. ...


5

You may want to look here and here. Outside of polite language, か should be used with care. Generally, it has a very masculine and rough sounding atmosphere. Generally, in informal language, it only used when being very direct or sarcastic. Here's a good example taken from the second link: そんなのは、あるかよ!(Do you think (I) would have that kind of thing!?) ...


5

sawa's answer explains the の, but I feel のか as used in the question hasn't been fully explained. It doesn't correspond well in this situation to "is it the case that...?", because that is a question that demands an answer. This particular use of のか doesn't. I doubt it would be said with a questioning tone. "So you have that/those kind(s) of ...


4

This の is called a formal noun, and has a very general meaning that can be translated to English as 'the case', 'the fact', or 'the situation', and it heads an appositive clause. It is the same の used in the のだ consruction. It typically implies that the appositive clause is an explanation to the previous context. It has pretty much similar implications that ...


2

Your translation was correct in meaning. そんな嘘にオレがだまされっと思ってんのか!? I think the latter is the more colloquial version of the following: そんな嘘にオレがだまされっと思ってんですか!?(or思ってるんですか) So this: そんな嘘にオレがだまされっと思ってんの!? has the same meaning with perhaps less inquisitive emphasis, while this: そんな嘘にオレがだまされっと思ってんか!? sounds less natural to me. I think one ...


2

The difference is more or less whether you're using casual forms or polite forms. With polite forms like your example question, it's a straightforward question. With a casual form like 今何時か it might be seen a little rude, or that you're expressing surprise/frustration. In casual speech if you want to ask a straightforward question you should use the rising ...


2

I never did figure out what the right answer was in traditional grammar, but I ended up reading in a linguistics paper somewhere that this is a complementizer. In other words, it turns a clause into a complement of the following verb. In your example, it turns どこにある into an interrogative complement of the verb 知っています:  1. デパートはどこにあるか?  As ...


1

I feel that やってみる (with rising intonation) is always a direct question directed towards someone else. On the other hand, やってみるか is technically a question, but feels more like a rhetorical question, or a question that is directed towards yourself. (However, sometimes a rising intonation doesn't work to mark a question, like in やってみよう. Then, か makes it a ...


1

Slightly different, but on topic I believe: You in should never double up and write both か and a question mark, like so: どこですか? (bad!) It is better to use only one. Either the question mark if it is transcribed speech, or the か for formal texts, or even a の if you try to be less brisk or more feminine.



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