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53

(This answer was originally at this question, but it seemed more appropriate here) は and が are a bit complex because they have several meanings, and some of the shades of meaning of wa and ga are a bit hard to distinguish casually. The best coverage of this that I have read is "The Structure of the Japanese Language" by Susumu Kuno(written in English). I'm ...


12

There is a class of Japanese verbs (and more generally, predicates) whose subjects and objects take が.[1] For example: あの学生がその本が要る。(Ano gakusei ga sono hon ga iru. "That student needs your book.") 猫が魚が好きだ。(Neko ga sakana ga suki da. "Cats like fish.") 私が日本語が分かる。 (Watashi ga nihongo ga wakaru. "I understand Japanese.") (Of couse, these がs can be replaced ...


11

In the が + potential construction, the focus is on the noun. 新聞が読める (what I am able to read is newspapers [as opposed to other written media]) ここで切符が買えますか (is this where tickets [as opposed to other items for sale] can be bought?) In the を + potential construction, the focus is on the entire phrase. 新聞を読める (what I am able to do is read ...


11

If you already speak a little Japanese, compare these: Aiko-chan ga suki desu I like (love) Aiko. Aiko-chan wa suki desu Aiko likes it. I read a lot about this, theory about subjects and objects, but for some reason, this simple example (heard once I'd had a few months in Japan) most helped me to "get it".


9

'Ga' has nothing to do with negation. Your example 'テレビがありません' is completely fine. The reason you need 'mo' in those examples is because Japanese uses a category of words called indeterminates (which includes 'なに' and 'だれ'), which can be used as a universal quantifier (which translates to English as 'any ...'), existential quantifier (which translates to ...


9

As @Flaw flawlessly explains, Japanese sentences can have clausal predicates. This is what causes what is commonly known as double-subject constructions, although I believe "clausal predicates" really illustrates the structure better. I assume you have heard constructions like 彼は髪が長い He has long hair Some teachers/textbooks might explain this away by ...


8

As you correctly note, the が in this context adds focus to the noun phrase: 私が一番 'I am the best.' or 'The best one is me' 私は一番 'I am the best.' [私]{わたくし} is very formal and polite, and is not usually used other than in business conversations, [私]{わたし} is neutral with politeness, 俺 is rough, and 俺様 is self-appraising. Any of them will work with ...


7

I mostly agree with YOU in that it is personal preference and perhaps more of a broad preference that may be more prevalent in different parts of Japan. I've also noticed that the "nga" pronunciation seems more common when が is spoken in places such as ですが where it often sounds something like desu-nga. In terms of a slightly more formal reference the English ...


7

A late answer, but I thought I'd throw it in anyway. As the others have said, they are allophones and mostly interchangeable. When I moved to Tokyo, I immediately noticed this sound. The strange thing was that getting other Japanese people to hear the difference was very difficult and it took some effort to find out what was going on. Apparently most are ...


7

I think this is how: Consider first Clause1: 家賃が安い. The structure is Subject1+が+Predicate1. Subject1: 家賃 Predicate1: 安い Now consider Clause2: (都心より)郊外のほうが家賃が安い. The structure is Subject2+が+Predicate2, where Predicate2 is Clause1. Subject2: 郊外のほう Predicate2: 家賃が安い Predicate: The part of a sentence or clause saying something about the subject


6

Because 分かる is an intransitive verb meaning "to be understood". If you wanted to keep the structure as close as possible to the original, you could literally translate 私は日本語がわかります as "regarding me, Japanese is understood". But, as you may have noticed, English and Japanese seldom share the same sentence structure; in English the same concept is expressed by ...


6

Here's the English equivalents for the IPA: [ɡ] = the 'g' in 'get' [ŋ] = the 'ng' in 'sing' The main difference is that [ŋ] is a nasal consonant, whereas [ɡ] is not. If you try plugging your nose and pronouncing [ŋ], you'll realize that it's not possible. That's because air must flow through the nasal passage, but not the oral passage, for [ŋ]. The ...


6

In my opinion, it is a bit of a mistake to think of は as being in opposition to が. There are times where は marks things that have nothing to do with the subject of the sentence. There are times where you have to choose between は and を for example. 今はどうしようかな? = What should I do now? Sometimes the は will be left off, but が could never be used here because ...


6

This is a great question, and one of which I'm not sure I fully understand the nuances. But here goes: What I learned in my first Japanese class was the は/が for basic things like this: あの人は日本語がわかる → That guy understands Japanese. 友達は子供が3人います → My friend has 3 children. だれがこれが出来るか → Who can do this? Then I heard some people start using に and ...


6

Perhaps part of the solution is the dropping of words assumed from context? 明日は雨だ → 明日(の天気)は雨だ You could consider this as a type of sentence known as "ウナギ文". http://www.sf.airnet.ne.jp/~ts/language/unagi.html - has a nice explanation (in Japanese), exemplified by the exchange (ordering in a restaurant): 甲: 僕は天丼にするよ。 乙: 僕はうなぎだ。 Here the second speaker ...


6

(The question was already essentially answered in comments by Chocolate and me, but I am posting an answer as an answer.) To answer the question literally, 試験に受かる (to pass an examination) is grammatical, but 試験が受かる is not grammatical, as Chocolate stated in her comment. But a more interesting part comes from your logic based on which you thought that ...


5

は conveys a more direct sense of subject. It is hard to sum up, but が is more general. For instance, If you were complaining about your performance today, you might say: ぼくはおそい。 (I am slow) It would be awkward to use が in this case because you don't need to indicate that you mean you as opposed to someone or something else. But you might use が to ...


5

が simply marks a subject of a sentence, but your question is not really about the use of が. Note that 決定する has two usages: 〈人〉が〈事〉を決定する (transitive) and 〈事〉が決定する (intransitive). The former usage is similar to 決める, whereas the latter usage is similar to 決まる. When we say something was decided without a focus on who did it, it is more natural to use 決定する ...


5

Flaw's answer is of course correct, but here's another way to look at it. Start with a simple sentence like this: 犬{いぬ}が好{す}きだ。 "I like dogs." Since the predicate is a na-adjective, 好きだ, the object (犬) needs to be marked by が. (Your second sentence is ungrammatical for this reason, btw.) Then, if you want to say something like "I like running.", ...


5

It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano Here, playing the piano is an action, thus "o" is used. Being able to play the piano is a state, thus "ga" ...


4

I'd say using が particle with negative verbs is not unusual at all especially if it is exhaustive が usage. Consider if the question was: "I think you said before that your house doesn't have this one electrical appliances I've forgotten which one was it, was it TV, fridge or microwave?" To answer this question, you need to say something that say TV, out of ...


4

Since it doesn't teach "noun ga arimasen/imasen", I'm wondering if it's because that's not gramatically correct. It is correct. For example, どうしてさみしいですか? (Why are you sad?) 彼氏がいないので、さみしいです。 (I'm sad because I don't have a boyfriend) or 最近忙しくて、友達に会う時間がない。 (I've been too busy recently to see my mates) However, very often, when you state your ...


4

It is the nominative case marker on an intransitive subject. The verb 決定する can be used transitively as you expected, or intransitively. You may not be able to do this with the corresponding verb decide in English, but other verbs in English have the same type of transitive alternation. The family settled in New York. The professor settled the test tube ...


4

The nominalisation occurs with just の. を and が are case markers and the choice between them depends on the other part of the sentence; whether a verb that assigns a を argument is used, or a verbal nominal adjective (such as 好き that takes が for object marking1), or a stative clause. Verb: 宿題をするのを忘れた Verbal Nominal Adjective: 水を飲むのが好きです Stative verb: ...


4

In fact, this は, seldom mentioned in research works, (at least in the hundreds of papers and books I have read), is a little different. In short, I think it is used to show and show how the statement agrees or disagrees with an existing proposition. In your example, it clear to see the two sentence are almost the same except the parts before and after は. ...


3

There are many instances where の and が could both technically be used, but where one is more natural-sounding (or seems more relevant to the intent of the sentence) than the other. I'd think I'd say that this is probably one of those situations, though I'd never say it the second way, personally; I'd always use の. The clause 「彼女がどんな困難からも逃げない」 is most ...


3

I'm not really sure if it makes sense to talk about 'logic', but I'll still try to see if I can add some system to the madness. Japanese often uses が, not を, after what would typically be the object in English, when there's no actual action inflicted upon said object. 彼が好き, お金が欲しい, 日本語が分かる, りんごが食べたい, 字が読める, あいつが憎い. One way to look at it could be: if for ...


3

Originally I didn't think I had a full answer to this question, but in the end maybe I do. たい is actually an adjective. When describing things with adjectives, が is used: ようこさんは髪【かみ】が長【なが】いです。 Youko's hair is long. I think that adding たい to the ます form of a verb means it is no longer a verb, but rather an adjective. So don't think of たい form as a ...


3

First, you can have several が, for example if you say "that is Yamada who is blind": 山田{やまだ}さんが目{め}が見{み}えない. Then, if you have a choice, I'd suggest you break the sentence or rephrase. Moreover, there are cases where you can turn が into の. For example 私{わたし}が飼{か}っている犬{いぬ}が車{くるま}にぶつけられた。 can become 私{わたし}の飼{か}っている犬{いぬ}が車{くるま}にぶつけられた。 As for your initial ...


3

I'm a little confused because 0がありません means "there is no zero". Perhaps "delete-flag equals zero" should be ゼロの削除{さくじょ}フラグ or ゼロと等{ひと}しい削除{さくじょ}フラグ I'm going to interpret your sentence as : The Detail query does not contain the condition of "delete-flag equals 0" Nouns: Detail query, (the condition of) delete-flag equals 0 (Not really a noun phrase ...



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