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10

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is ...


5

This でも means "〜 or something similar". So メシでも食べて means "eat some rice or something". The ででも in question is just the action-location-marker で plus the previous でも. So 舞台袖ででも大人しくして means "wait/behave quietly in the 舞台袖 (or somewhere)". (Not sure of the best translation for 舞台袖 -- literally the "wings of the stage", but maybe something like "off-stage" ...


5

If you were to say 夢は夢しかない then it would have a meaning of something like "dreams have nothing but dreams." It's the simple ~は~が construction you learn in Japanese 101 to describe a particular feature of a subject. This is not a copula. As you mention, you should be looking at it in terms of である. If you take out the しか you'll have the normal copula 夢は夢ではない, ...


3

でも not merely consists of で+も accidentally, it is a combination of で and も, and has then grown beyond the sum of its parts. Still, its meaning has not shifted completely, and so it should not be surprising that we can come across some phrases where both interpretations work. (Also それでも, it can be analyzed both ways.) Note that this is not the でも that can go ...


2

I don't think this indicates a place of existence (February is not located in Japan), but a limitation/focusing on the statement that follows: Considering the weather in Japan, February is the coldest month. Out of mountains that are in Japan, Mount Fuji is the tallest, etc. This で can be used with non-location words: チーターは陸上{りくじょう}の動物で一番速いです (Cheetahs ...



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