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11

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


10

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is ...


9

Is the particle に okay? I'm afraid not. I think you can say it like this: 田中さんはビデオゲームで遊んでいます。 This で is like "with", as in the instrumental (具格{ぐかく}) case, rather than "in" or "on". Or you can also say: 田中さんはビデオゲームをしています。 田中さんはビデオゲームをして遊んでいます。


6

[公園]{こうえん}で[散歩]{さんぽ}します。 公園を散歩します。 Both sound okay to me and I don't think there's much difference in meaning... just the former sounds a bit more colloquial to me, I would write を if I was told to fill in the blank in 「公園( )散歩します。」 in Japanese class, but I think I usually say "公園で散歩してたらblah blah..." or "公園散歩してたらblah blah・・・" (leaving out the を/で) in ...


5

This でも means "〜 or something similar". So メシでも食べて means "eat some rice or something". The ででも in question is just the action-location-marker で plus the previous でも. So 舞台袖ででも大人しくして means "wait/behave quietly in the 舞台袖 (or somewhere)". (Not sure of the best translation for 舞台袖 -- literally the "wings of the stage", but maybe something like "off-stage" ...


5

If you were to say 夢は夢しかない then it would have a meaning of something like "dreams have nothing but dreams." It's the simple ~は~が construction you learn in Japanese 101 to describe a particular feature of a subject. This is not a copula. As you mention, you should be looking at it in terms of である. If you take out the しか you'll have the normal copula 夢は夢ではない, ...


3

でも not merely consists of で+も accidentally, it is a combination of で and も, and has then grown beyond the sum of its parts. Still, its meaning has not shifted completely, and so it should not be surprising that we can come across some phrases where both interpretations work. (Also それでも, it can be analyzed both ways.) Note that this is not the でも that can go ...


3

It's 後で+も. The も serves to emphasize that it's speaking about after doing sports in particular or especially. This is the same も that goes into the construction of the -(verb)てもいい pattern. Think of (noun)で as the -て form of a noun (or adjectival).


3

I don't think this is で used as temporal particle. I would read it as でも meaning "either or", "both..." as in AでもBでも. This applies to all nouns, for example: 英語でも日本語でもOKです。 English or Japanese, both are OK. So your sentence could be translated as: 日本では昼間でも夜でもタクシーを拾うことができる。 Day or night, you can catch a taxi in Japan.


1

As Szymon says, you have not given an appropriate example: In your sentence でも is being used to give two options but で can be used to indicate when something finishes or a duration: -> finishing time: 仕事は5時で終わります。 My work finishes at 5pm. You could also use に but whereas に is a more general particle that gives the time at which an event occurs (ie ...


1

Perhaps one might think of 仕事で as "at/while work(ing)" and 仕事に as "at/for/to work". You might also say something like [最大限]{さいだいげん}に[能力]{のうりょく}を[発揮]{はっき}する.



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