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的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is ...


Is the particle に okay? I'm afraid not. I think you can say it like this: 田中さんはビデオゲームで遊んでいます。 This で is like "with", as in the instrumental (具格{ぐかく}) case, rather than "in" or "on". Or you can also say: 田中さんはビデオゲームをしています。 田中さんはビデオゲームをして遊んでいます。


This でも means "〜 or something similar". So メシでも食べて means "eat some rice or something". The ででも in question is just the action-location-marker で plus the previous でも. So 舞台袖ででも大人しくして means "wait/behave quietly in the 舞台袖 (or somewhere)". (Not sure of the best translation for 舞台袖 -- literally the "wings of the stage", but maybe something like "off-stage" ...


[公園]{こうえん}で[散歩]{さんぽ}します。 公園を散歩します。 Both sound okay to me and I don't think there's much difference in meaning... just the former sounds a bit more colloquial to me, I would write を if I was told to fill in the blank in 「公園( )散歩します。」 in Japanese class, but I think I usually say "公園で散歩してたらblah blah..." or "公園散歩してたらblah blah・・・" (leaving out the を/で) in ...


If you were to say 夢は夢しかない then it would have a meaning of something like "dreams have nothing but dreams." It's the simple ~は~が construction you learn in Japanese 101 to describe a particular feature of a subject. This is not a copula. As you mention, you should be looking at it in terms of である. If you take out the しか you'll have the normal copula 夢は夢ではない, ...


I don't think this is で used as temporal particle. I would read it as でも meaning "either or", "both..." as in AでもBでも. This applies to all nouns, for example: 英語でも日本語でもOKです。 English or Japanese, both are OK. So your sentence could be translated as: 日本では昼間でも夜でもタクシーを拾うことができる。 Day or night, you can catch a taxi in Japan.


As Szymon says, you have not given an appropriate example: In your sentence でも is being used to give two options but で can be used to indicate when something finishes or a duration: -> finishing time: 仕事は5時で終わります。 My work finishes at 5pm. You could also use に but whereas に is a more general particle that gives the time at which an event occurs (ie ...


Perhaps one might think of 仕事で as "at/while work(ing)" and 仕事に as "at/for/to work". You might also say something like [最大限]{さいだいげん}に[能力]{のうりょく}を[発揮]{はっき}する.

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