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14

In general, で is where an action is performed and に is the "direction" toward/to/into which the result of an action happens. 部屋の中で泣いています → I'm crying in the room / "The place where I'm at while I'm crying is in the room" 部屋の中に泣いています → I'm crying into the room (meaning like, your tears are flowing from your face into the room). This doesn't make ...


14

The difference between using で and と is the difference between "we went out as a family" and "I went out with my family", I think of it as rather like the French "en famille". 家族で is very common expression and you can also hear this grammatical use when people refer to doing things as a group (グループで/皆でやりましょう). It is another variation on the use of the で ...


13

What I have been taught in the college is that に is only used for verbs that imply motions which destination/position is required to be specified. For example, if you say "ikimasu" (I'm going), unless already in the context, you need to specify the destination otherwise the sentence does not make sense. So, you use "ni": "asoko ni ikimasu" On the other ...


11

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


10

There are some interesting connotations in the Chiebukuro examples crunchyt kindly pointed to which I think are worth going over in more detail. First, the ~でする and ~にする forms: この仕事はあとでします。 I'll do this job later. この仕事はあとにします。 I'll do this job later. Now, the fact that these are both allowable and both have the same (English) translation doesn't ...


10

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is ...


9

より, when preceding an adjective as in your examples, means "more" or "-er": より多くの more [numerous] より快適な more pleasant, smoother より長い longer より良い better より一般的な more common, more typical As such, でより and でのより should not be considered together. で and での go with the preceding word, and より goes with the succeeding word.


9

It's a contraction of では (particle で, which has various uses, and the topic marker は). It is not particularly related to classical Japanese, and is not used only with negation.


9

Your question is about two different things: The usage of particle で and particle に to express place vs. action. The usage of particle は to highlight a matter in the sentence. Understanding particle で vs. particle に When you want to express where a certain action is taking place, you use particle で. Consider the following examples: 1a) My mom bought ...


9

Is the particle に okay? I'm afraid not. I think you can say it like this: 田中さんはビデオゲームで遊んでいます。 This で is like "with", as in the instrumental (具格{ぐかく}) case, rather than "in" or "on". Or you can also say: 田中さんはビデオゲームをしています。 田中さんはビデオゲームをして遊んでいます。


8

のに can have several meanings, "despite" being the most common one. But it can also mean "in order to" (~のため)。Here are some examples (taken from here http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=noni-2): パスポートは海外旅行に行くのに必要です。 A passport is necessary to travel abroad. 電子レンジは冷めた料理を温めるのに重宝だ。 A microwave is handy to heat up cold food.


8

I agree with Chocolate's answer. The slight difference in nuance (for me, without strong basis) is this: Aにゆれる 'swing against A' 'swinging on its own as a reaction to A' Aでゆれる 'swing {by/due to} A' 'swinging, caused by A' に implies a slight spontaneity whereas で implies a strong cause-result relation. So when you say 風に揺れる, it implies ...


7

で derives from に+て, and て roughly corresponds to the present/past participles (-ing, -en) in Western langauges. Kuno (1973) notices that て implies temporal order. So when you have 走ってころんだ '(By) running, I fell', running has to precede falling; it cannot be the other way around. This much is the general consensus. Notice that the usage of で in the ...


7

I suspect it's the nominalizer の, making the noun phrase "...温めるの". Then the 'directional/intention' particle に is appended, giving intention towards which the 電子レンジ can be considered 重宝. This can be occasionally tricky to sort out from the "in spite of" usage, but it is an alternate parse to be aware of.


7

It is okay to say などに and などで, but they may sound slightly formal nowadays. A more casual way of saying it is using とか: とかに and とかで.


7

I don't see much difference between: [家]{いえ}に[一人]{ひとり}です。and 家で一人です。 [今]{いま}、家に[独]{ひと}りぼっちです。and 今、家で独りぼっちです。 [今夜]{こんや}は[部屋]{へや}に一人きりだ。and 今夜は部屋で一人きりだ。 I think we tend to use で in daily conversation and に when we write when we use 一人だ/独りぼっちだ etc. to mean "alone/there's nobody else in the room/house". However, I see a slight difference between: ...


6

I agree with Amanda, a great question. To summarise with regard to 'time': "後で" means you are using the time you have later to do the action, whereas... "後に" implies you choose "later" from amongst other options (e.g. instead of 'now', 'never' or even 'undefined') for performing the action (i.e. eating). I found the answer here on Chiebukuro ...


6

First, we can't make the blanket statement that 一緒で is always incorrect, only that it is incorrect in this particular case. Let's start by identifying how に is used here. In the case of 一緒に, に works the same way as in expressions like きれいに ("neatly", "prettily") and 気軽に ("casually"): it turns the preceding word into an adverb and shows how the action is ...


6

風に揺れる sounds a bit poetic and literary to me. If I'm writing an essay, novel or poem, I'd write 風に揺れる. I think we usually say 風で揺れる in daily conversations.


6

Another definition of the particle で is "the condition/state of how the action takes place". This is the definition that your example fits in to. I suppose if it helps you to think of it as an "abstract location", then feel free to do so (as I firmly believe each individual has the right to do whatever helps them learn best), but I'd suggest just ...


6

As Ignacio have said, the い-form (or the [連用形]{ren'yōkei} form) is used with に to indicate a purpose. 特別なビザをもらいに行った means you're going somewhere, and your purpose for going there is getting a special visa. 特別なビザをもらって行った, however, is quite incorrect. Indeed, ~て-form + いく can be used to make a compound verb that means "beginning from a certain point, to be in ...


6

The scope of だけ is different depending on where you put it. このぬいぐるみを((日本だけ)で)手に入れます。- "You can get this plush toy in (only Japan)" このぬいぐるみを((日本で)だけ)手に入れます。- "You can get this plush toy ((in Japan) only)" Here it does not seem to show a big difference. Translating from this source: ~だけで is typically used to mean "just this method/location/person will ...


6

[公園]{こうえん}で[散歩]{さんぽ}します。 公園を散歩します。 Both sound okay to me and I don't think there's much difference in meaning... just the former sounds a bit more colloquial to me, I would write を if I was told to fill in the blank in 「公園( )散歩します。」 in Japanese class, but I think I usually say "公園で散歩してたらblah blah..." or "公園散歩してたらblah blah・・・" (leaving out the を/で) in ...


5

その中に would mean "to within that [selection of apartments]". Kind of nonsensical. その中で would mean "at within that [selection of apartments]". Also kind of nonsensical. その中から means "from within that [selection of apartments]". Clunky because literal translations are clunky, but the logic is there. The whole sentence: 私はその中から好きな家を借りました。 "I rented an ...


5

一緒に: adverb. Which means, it gives a description to an action (verb). 妹と一緒に浜辺へ行きました。Went to the beach together with my little sister. The verb 行く now has extra information: it was done together 妹. 一緒で: predicate + conjuction. Which means, 一緒 is used to describe that the subject is together. Then で is used to continue description with other predicate ...


5

I agree with Chocolate that に is slightly more literary. But I think that both に and で mean a cause in this context, and に is not necessarily ruled out even in the daily conversation. I cannot pin down the exact difference between に and で, but I would like to point out that there are similar sentences where both に and で are grammatical and have almost the ...


5

If you ask why a flag is waving, then you use kazede (風で). But if you are describing a flag's movement, then you use kazeni yureteiru (風に揺れている). 'De' is used for why/method etc. 'Ni' is used for describing a situation/movement etc.


5

Adding も after で is possible and usual. See Particles で and も and でも. Adding でも after で is also possible, and ででも is not unseen, but the first で is often omitted.


5

This can depend on the arguments a verb takes. For example, いる uses に for location. かべでいる would make no sense. 書く takes an argument for something to be written on; 「壁に書く」 means "write on a wall", and 「壁で書く」 means "write at a wall". For the 泣く example, you really could use either one, but で may be clearer because 泣く can take an argument marked by に to ...


5

Derek already answered the question well, but let me add an important difference between English and Japanese about comparisons. While “より X” means “more X,” simple “X” can also mean “more X.” In other words, unlike English, the comparative degree does not have to be made explicit in Japanese. The adverb より clarifies or emphasizes that it is about a ...



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