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Despite your confusion, you're actually asking two distinct questions unrelated to each other. Why 結{けっ}婚{こん} rather than 結{け}っ婚{こん} Because none of affixes involved in this case. Okurigana isn't for marking sound changes. It only clarifies some kind of grammatical meaningful differences caused by conjugation or derivation, or by homographic kun'yomi ...


結婚 is a Chinese loanword; 持つ is native Japanese. In chinese loanwords, sometimes final sounds like つ get contracted to っ〜, but because it's still 結{けつ}, the つ is still "part of" the reading. Often 2-kanji words are chinese in origin. In the case of 持って, the っ is a suffix to 持つ's root, 持. 持 on its own doesn't have a つ sound in it. Same goes for 読む -> 読んで. ...


Because 結 don't have reading of け but けつ and 持て would be ambiguous if it's もって or もて.

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