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14

If you hit the end of line, and you're out of space, yes, you can freely split kanji and their okurigana. I have a novel right in front of me that does it two lines in a row on the second page: 彼女と初 // めて会った 思 // い出してみるがいいよ. Wikipedia says that the rules governing line-splitting in Japanese are called 禁則【きんそく】処理【しょり】, and there are slight variations in ...


14

First, concurring with Axioplase: だく is for tangible things, いだく is for abstract things. (Daijisen has a usage note under 抱える that deals with this distinction.) With regards to your second question, yes, だく can have the connotation of "sleep with" (second sense in the Daijisen definition for 抱く). It's a somewhat "nicer" way to say "sleep with" in the sense ...


13

Well, first, I think that うだく is archaic, as I read it: 〔上代語「むだく」の転で、「だく」の古形。平安鎌倉時代の漢文訓読にだけ見える語〕 Then, だく seems to be use for concrete situations, when you really use your hands. いだく seems to be a more literary reading, or used in abstract situations, like 「理想を―・く」「不安を―・く」. This is exactly your sentence, isn't it? Sources: on-line dictionaries ...


8

Verbs and い-adjectives may be inflected with different okurigana For example, the verb 歩く may be inflected to form: polite: 歩きます negative: 歩かない polite negative: 歩きません past tense: 歩いた past polite: 歩きました negative past: 歩かなかった negative past polite: 歩きませんでした te form: 歩いて desiderative: 歩きたい volitional: 歩こう polite volitional (cohortative): 歩きましょう plain negative ...


7

I agree that this is very difficult. One way I've found that usually works is to use context to determine the correct reading. Often one of the readings will have specific nuances that the others don't, so the context of the sentence can help you out. One example that I personally encounter all the time is 汚れる. It can be read as both よごれる and けがれる. They ...


7

Your question assumes that people typically learn the kanji, for instance 歩, and then go on to try to figure out what extra meaning the okurigana impart on the kanji -- for instance, the addition of く creates a verb 歩く "to walk", and the addition of いた to 歩 creates the past tense verb "walked". This is not the typical approach. The typical approach is to ...


6

General As had been pointed out, as a general rule, that part of the word - in terms of kana syllables - that changes or inflects is written with okurigana. See also 「送り仮名の付け方『国語を書き表すための送り仮名の付け方のよりどころ」』・単独の語1・活用のある語・通則1」, which states as a general principle that the inflectional ending is added in kana. 活用のある語(通則2を適用する語を除く。)は,活用語尾を送る。 History When ...


6

I don't know if I should bring over my answer from the Linguistics SE or not. In my experience, you can split anywhere between characters (including okurigana), but it is still best to keep words together. Sometimes there is really little choice but to split between the characters in a word. However, as long as one is able, words should not be split. In ...


6

Since the kanji part of both verbs and adjective is the part conveying the root meaning of this particular adjective form, the okurigana (i.e. everything that follows the part written in kanji) is rarely composed of anything else except for derivation and conjugation suffixes. Conjugation suffixes are easy enough, and I doubt they pose any problem for you. ...


6

Other than brute-force memorization (棒暗記), the only thing I can suggest is material regarding the Kanji-Kentei (漢検), because I know some of the (lower?) levels focus on 送り仮名. Some materials I have are books of tests from previous years (問題集), and a Nintendo DS 漢検 game. However, I got all of this in Japan, so I don't know how accessible this kind of stuff ...


6

I had the same question as you a long time ago, and at the time a translator friend gave me the following explanation. With these kinds of compounds (I always forget if they're compound verbs or something else, so forgive me that I'm lacking terminology), writing with okurigana or not is equally fine. The reason the okurigana can be omitted is that those ...


5

Despite your confusion, you're actually asking two distinct questions unrelated to each other. Why 結{けっ}婚{こん} rather than 結{け}っ婚{こん} Because none of affixes involved in this case. Okurigana isn't for marking sound changes. It only clarifies some kind of grammatical meaningful differences caused by conjugation or derivation, or by homographic kun'yomi ...


5

結婚 is a Chinese loanword; 持つ is native Japanese. In chinese loanwords, sometimes final sounds like つ get contracted to っ〜, but because it's still 結{けつ}, the つ is still "part of" the reading. Often 2-kanji words are chinese in origin. In the case of 持って, the っ is a suffix to 持つ's root, 持. 持 on its own doesn't have a つ sound in it. Same goes for 読む -> 読んで. ...


5

Would it surprise you if I told you that you are likely to have been using Japanese words of the same structure as 「開け口」 for years already --- 「[着物]{きもの}」,「[焼]{や}き[鳥]{とり}」, 「[食]{た}べ[物]{もの}」, etc. The structure is "[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + Noun". It is as simple as that. 「[開け口]{あけぐち}」= The 連用形 of the verb [開]{あ}ける, which is [開]{あ}け + The noun [口]{くち} = ...


5

「[一]{ひと}」 is the number while 「[一]{ひと}つ」 is the count. 「~つ」 is used as a "generic" counter for counts less than 10 when the actual counter is unknown. 一つの林檎をください 一果の林檎をください


4

I'm suspecting you're confusing two different things, morphological rules and orthographic rules. Okurigana do not have any semantic meaning per se. That would not be a logical way to think about it. They attach to the kanji, thereby creating a word which has a reading and a meaning.


4

For 静か and 暖かい, the か is a fossilised grammatical element (cf. 静まる and 暖まる, which don't have it). As for 大きい, it's written with き to differentiate it from 大い, which is a 形容動詞 (albeit with a similar meaning). 小さい's case is a little less clear, since while there is a word that's written 小い, it's a very informal word (ちっこい) typically written with kana. It may ...


4

This is the descriptive answer. Google hits A word of warning about google hits. They are not accurate. Google tries everything to reduce computation time and costs, and it will not give you an accurate full-text search of the entire (public) net. Try going to page 20 or 30, and Google informs you it cannot provide any more results. Furthermore, a search ...


4

Considering this is an example sentence in a modern J-E dictionary, yes, I believe this is a typo. At least in standard Japanese, it should be written as 甘んじている. BCCWJ corpus returned only one result for 甘【あまん】じる ("屈辱に甘じているのだ" in a novel published in 2002), and there may be a few other instances where old writers used 甘【あまん】じる. But let's not care about that ...


4

Yes there are, but it is a grey area if you include rare, uncommon, creative or archaic readings. People can be creative especially when it comes to kun-readings. Even for a kanji usually used only in compounds you might find a stand-alone usage if you're looking hard enough. Some of these need okurigana, eg. 隷う【したがう】 or 悠か【はるか】, but some don't, eg. ...


3

OK, there is an official rule, but I must say this is really really difficult and even most native Japanese do not follow the official rule. As a noun, it is「話」. As a verb, it is 「話す」and its 連用形 is「話し」. 「お話になる。」"(It) becomes a story." 「お話しになる。」"(Someone) speaks." The same thing happens between「光」and「光り」. 「港の光」"The light of the harbor." 「港の光り」"The ...


3

The gist: There is a kind of computerized kanji input system that puts you back in charge of which letter to write in Kanji and which one in Kana. Namely, SKK. With SKK, you can actively learn okurigana rules even when writing text on the computer. Basically, SKK converts words one by one (single-word conversion), without analysing syntax or grammar. ...


2

Because 結 don't have reading of け but けつ and 持て would be ambiguous if it's もって or もて.


2

When I was taught vocabulary, in some cases I was given words with okuriganas, in some cases without, and in exams, getting the okuriganas wrong would be blamed. Based on this education, my answer is: "Yes there is a difference: one of the two spellings is correct, and there is no rule telling you which one it is."


2

This is read as むこう. 向こう is the "standard" spelling, but people (especially novelists like him) sometimes use nonstandard or customary spellings like this. You can see the list of such kanji here: 送り仮名の省略 送り仮名の最短化


1

You can think of Furigana and Okurigana as the root and stem of the word respectively. Do you know what transitive/intransitive verbs are? Unlike English, nearly all verb meanings have a pair of these. In case you don't (or some future reader doesn't), transitive verbs can (sometimes must) take a direct object (using を). They are actions you do to ...


1

First of all, are the meanings correct? Yes, you are right. Then, after a quick search, I found out that okurigana is efficient to disambiguate them. Didn't the author mean furigana instead? Yes, he's wrong. Lastly, what are the most important (to know)/most frequent homographic Kanji out there? Err, all the X中, where 中 is read ちゅう or じゅう. ...



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