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A dictionary says interestingly that 本物 means 本当のもの(こと) and 本当 means 本物のもの(こと), that is to say, they have the same meaning of "real". However 本当 has some meaning like "true", and 本当 may be used more as the meaning of "true" than "real", so Japanese native might correct 本当 as 本物. I also think 本物 is more common as the meaning of "real" than 本当.


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First Question That part is usually translated as "When Shimamura gazed outside, thinking もうそんな寒さか, ...". See: verb+ようにと、 or verb+かと、 This pattern is super common. In this construction, I feel some verb (感じて, 思って, 願って, 言って, etc) is omitted after と. Second Question Simply, that だけ was used to mean there were only barracks in sight. Note that this だけ is ...


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The former, かわいいのは私です is correct, and means "It is me who is cute." It's a cleft sentence made from a very simple sentence 私はかわいいです ("I am cute"). See this answer for details about cleft sentences. This の functions as a "placeholder", like it in "It is me who is cute." かわいい is a typical i-adjective, and it doesn't work as a no-adjective or a noun. かわいいの私です ...


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Essentially, both mean "We". In my experience 我々 has the nuance of a "we" within a defined group: we (our class, our company, our country), where 私達 has no nuance. A very common use case is 我々日本人


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There is not such verb as 出来上げる, although 出来上がる (intransitive) and 作り上げる (transitive) exist. No one can possess a verb. That の after 我々/私たち is a subject marker, which can replace が only in relative clauses. See: How does the の work in 「日本人の知らない日本語」? 我々 and 私たち are always first person and plural pronouns, of course. And I don't know why you think they behave ...


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There are no such differences in terms of nuances that you point out. Both are not rude and can be used for 4,5 people. 私たち and われわれ are always interchangeable without making the sentence rude or improper. Instead, it changes an impression a bit. われわれ sounds slightly more academic or political while 私たち sounds slightly softer. Or I can say われわれ, in any ...


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I don't believe that there is any special difference in meaning imparted by adding の to われわれ or わたしたち・わたくしたち. Adding の only turns these words into a possessive pronouns. The choice between these expressions will always involve how you feel about who you are addressing and people you include as "we", regardless of whether what follows describes something ...


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と can be used with either a sentence or a noun. with 思う 彼は正しいと思う (with sentence, "[I] think he is right") これを形見と思う (with noun, "[I] think of it as a keepsake") with 見られる 地震が原因で倒壊したとみられる (with sentence, "[It] collapsed probably due to the earthquake") 地震が原因と見られる (with noun, "the earthquake is probably the cause") ~と見える means "it seems that...". However, ...


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The first one means The themes of the second talk are love and despair. The second one means The themes of the two talks are love and despair → implying either 1) that one talk is about love, and the other is about despair, or 2) they are both about both love and despair.


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This ように is used as a direction of someone, so I think a potential verb is used like 買えるように. 買うように is used like 私は彼に本を買うように言った(I told him to buy a book.) This ために is used as reason, so I think a normal verb is used like 買うために. So: 新しい車を買えるように、お金を貯めています and 新しい車を買うために、お金を貯めています are more natural than: 新しい車を買うように、お金を貯めています and 新しい車を買えるために、...


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新しい車を買えるように、お金を貯めています。 This usage of ように is familiar to me. 新しい車を買えるために、お金を貯めています。 I'm not so sure about this one though, sounds a bit off.


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It's worth noting that ‑zuru forms are historically older than the ‑jiru forms. This might account for the sense l'électeur notes, that the ‑jiru forms come across as "lighter", "less literary", "less formal", etc. How the forms developed Historically, there are many terms that started out as compounds, where a noun or a borrowing ...


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There's a huge overlap between them, but if I'm going to explain the difference... 規則 is something you may follow or otherwise violate. This is easy. Otoh, a bit less common 規定 is just the way an organization is supposed to do its job. So, for example, when we talk about pay rules, it's 給与規程, not 給与規則.


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I think you are right. For example, テレビを見ながら食事する(I eat foods while watching the TV.) , 冬の間、亀は冬眠する。(turtles hibernate during winter.). いくら ~ても(でも) is used with pronoun, adjective, and verb. どんなに~ても is used with adjective and verb but with pronoun is unnatural like どんなに私でも. So they are interchangeable except pronoun. verb + ている means progressive like I am ...


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Interchangeable. Just a minor difference in pronunciation. Perhaps it's an [音便]{おんびん} thing


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I think the answer is right there in your examples. You've used 規定 as a verb with する, but not 規則.「規則する」 isn't used. But as you've already noted, there is some overlap in meaning between 規定・規則. It may help to think of it this way: 規定 - 「規」を定めること・定められた「規」 deciding upon a rule ・ a rule which has been decided 規則 - 定められた「規」 a rule which ...


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"老いる" means "get old," in terms of age as well as physical and mental conditions. 老いること isn't a desirable matter. But you cannot evade it. It's a rule of nature. Sometimes you can get wiser as you progress in age. In that sense, "老いる," sui generis doesn't have so much negative tone as our Minister of Finance, Taro Aso thinks - He said recently in his ...


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It depends on who your friends are. I don't think avoiding mention of the name of person whom we are meeting is not a general trait nor habbit of Japanese. As Chocolate said, I don't have any problem in mentioning the name of the person I have an appointment with to you, if both of I and you know him or her well, unless it should involve any speciffic ...


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It's not uncommon for the Japanese to use the following in the regular conversation. Mostly they habituated not discussing about their personal things in more detail with others 用事があるから早く帰ります。 I will leave early because I have things to do. 予定/約束があります。 I have appointment/meeting (It can be any type of meeting) 体調が悪い。Ill/Sick (Does not talk about what kind ...


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I got curious and made some research. I have found an article here that explains exactly this difference. Apparently, under a legal point of view, there is no real distinction between the two as companies tend to treat one type or the other rather arbitrarily. There are cases where part-timers work alongside with full-time employees, and others where ...


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老いる is a little bookish way to say "to age". The most common phrase now to say growing old is 年を取る. 老ける isn't really "grow old", but describing people become "older" than they really are, that is, they've got weary, out of blood, or lost youthfulness, often suggesting that they had a hard time. In its participle-like forms 老けている or 老けた it means "look old".


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老ける strongly refers to one's appearance, like, say, after not seeing your friend for a few years you notice that he has visibly aged in appearance (perhaps more than he ought to have). On the other hand, 老いる refers more to the decline in physical ability / mental acuity with age.



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