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10

The most concise explanation would be: A なら B means "if there is an A, there is a B" A たら B means "if A is completed, B happens" なら doesn't really care about the time order. B could take place before, while, after doing A, or all time during A. It just tells "an A must be accompanied by a B". In linguistic jargon, なら makes aoristic condition. ...


8

People usually say エスカレーターに乗る, エスカレーターで8階まで上がる, etc. エスカレーターを乗り継ぐ is not common, but it would be accepted if one wants to explicitly say (for whatever reason) riding several escalators in succession. エスカレーターを乗り継いで1階から8階まで上がる (cf. 電車を乗り継いで東京から九州まで行く)


5

蘇生する can be used both transitively and intransitively. Basically it only means resurrecting dead people/animals. 蘇生 is also a medical term for (cardiopulmonary) resuscitation. 死者が灰から蘇生する (intransitive) 死者を灰から蘇生する (transitive) 死者を灰から蘇生させる (intransitive + causative) 蘇る is always intransitive. It can be used with 記憶, 思い出, etc., too. 死者が灰から蘇る 死者を灰から蘇らせる ...


4

TL;DR: Whichever is fine, but using くる is safer. You seem to know the basic rule, but just to make sure, this type of verb after te-form of another verb + て/で is called a subsidiary verb, and they are generally written in hiragana. What is a subsidiary verb? But this rule is not very strict, and every so often you will see people use kanji for ...


4

In my experience, when in the 〜て+くる form, it is more often written as Hiragana as opposed to Kanji. However, I don't think there is any major nuance difference. In the case when there is nothing actually physically arriving and the verb is used more metaphorically, like "わかってきた” or "頑張ってきた”, I feel like it is even more common to use Hiragana over Kanji. ...


4

候 is an antiquated predicate meaning “be, is, am, are” as Waley translated. It was commonly used in literature and letters just up until the early part of Showa Era. It is usually used in the statement addressed to your senior, like: …にて候、 [御座]{ござ}候、 …の[次第]{しだい}にて候、 …[致]{いた}して候、 …と[思案]{しあん}[仕]{つかまつ}り候、 [之]{これ}あり候、 [有間敷事而]{あるまじきことにて}候、 ...


4

女の子 literally means "female child", thus girl. Despite the hiragana in the middle, it's already one solid word, always pronounced as おんなのこ{LHHLL}. The same applies to 男の子 (boy, おとこのこ{LHHLL}). On the other hand, 子【し】 in 女子【じょし】 doesn't mean "child". The kanji here roughly means "one (who —)" (In Chinese, 男 and 女 are adjectives and not nouns, so when ...


4

Roughly speaking, 話す is close to talk or speak, and 言う is close to say. Sometimes they can be used interchangeably (like in your 千葉県の男性 example), but sometimes they are not. Saying just one word or two is not 話す. 話す is used with a relatively longer story, speech, opinion, lecture, etc. 話す is rarely used without physical vocals. You can safely use 言う for ...


4

Here it isn't really ことになる as a set phrase, but [...こと]になる; i.e. you can substitute the first part from something else and still maintain the meaning here. 長い話になるが、 As for the "why not ですが", IMO using なる feels more like "it's gonna end up being" instead of just "is": This story I'm about to tell you is going to end up being about something that happened ...


2

Basically you can use either of them. However, in professional writing, you have to write subsidiary verbs in hiragana. In 1981, Japanese government issued a cabinet directive “公用文における漢字使用等について(昭和56年内閣閣第138号)” (About Kanji Usage in Official Documents) as a part of an orthography reform. It has examples that subsidiary verbs should be written in hiragana. ...


1

女子 is one that's categorized as female from a standpoint of some authority technically regardless of age like "women" as in sport or toilet. In this sense, 子 means "element". 女の子 is "girl". In this sense, 子 means "child".


1

女の子 is younger than 女子 in my feeling. I feel 女の子 is around elementary school kids, and 女子 is around junior and senior high school students because we refer to them like 女子中学生 and 女子高校生. However this feeling may vary from person to person and we sometimes use these words for adult women.



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