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進歩 is advancement to a higher/better/improved stage. Mainly used with scientific/technical ideas. 科学の進歩, コンピュータの進歩, 進歩したエンジン. 進行 is: progress to a advanced (often worse) stage: 癌の進行, 環境破壊が進行した progress of a plan, procedure, task, etc: 予定の進行, 結婚式の進行, 研究の進行状況 running/moving of a train, car, etc: 列車の進行, 進行方向の安全確認


In your case, you are asking about a specific construct: the use of purposeに+verb of movement To express: Going somewhere to do something This pattern can take two kinds of objects as purpose: The ~ます stem of a verb: "Going somewhere to verb'. Note that is similar to nominalizing the verb, see for example this question. A noun: "Going ...


[verb in masu-form + に行く] essentially means go to {place} to do {verb} So, in this case : おじいさんは山に行く。 The old man is going to the mountain 何故山に行くのか? Why is he going to the mountain? 木を切りに行く。 He's going to chop wood Does that make things a little clearer?

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