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12

Strictly speaking, 鍵{かぎ} is key and 錠{じょう} is lock. However, in daily speech, 錠 is hardly ever used. Usually, people will say 鍵 to mean either key or lock, and the context will make it clear which one it is. However, the じょう reading does appear in several common combinations: 施錠{せじょう} (to) lock 開錠{かいじょう} unlock 南京錠{なんきんじょう} padlock


8

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


8

The way I understand it is that 錠{じょう} is generally used for "lock" and 鍵{かぎ} for "key". 鍵 can mean "lock" in some contexts however (this is almost certainly incomplete): 鍵を掛ける - to lock (something)(literally something like "turn a key on (something)") 鍵が掛かっている/鍵が掛かった - (something) is locked 鍵を開ける - to unlock (something) 鍵を取り付ける - "install a ...


8

The のぉ is what we normally write as 「のう」, one of the sentence ending particles (終助詞). I think it sounds rather archaic, now we think it's only used by older people (but I doubt it's actually used daily anymore... I think we only see it in books, anime or manga...), and younger people don't use it in "normal" conversation. I think it's probably the archaic ...


8

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


7

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 ...


7

A native speaker here. Between the two ways you parsed the line, the second one is much better though still not perfect. The first period placed after the にじむ in your second attempt is unnecessary. Nearly all native speaers would consider 色あせる or 色あせた as one word, therefore; we would not even think that a が or の is being omitted. All of 色あせた、青ににじむ and 白い ...


7

My Japanese dictionaries (岩波国語辞典 and 小学館現代国語例解辞典) both have an entry for 生い立ち but not for 生い立つ, and my 古語辞典(角川 and 旺文社) both have an entry for おひたつ but not for おひたち. So I think 生い立ち came from おひたつ, and maybe おひたつ/生い立つ is now almost obsolete? Because I have never seen it used as a verb.


7

Without additional context, this sounds like a newspaper headline or something similar. In which case, the へ would act as "to" or "toward", implying the direction the Telefonica company will take in their business. Something like "Telefonica to head toward product investment next year" Again, if it's a headline or something, the verb is omitted yet ...


6

圧力 here means "pressure to do something (or not do something)". E.g.: 論文を発表しないよう圧力を受けた (I was pressured to not publish my paper). There could be multiple, distinct ways of applying such pressure, like freezing one's account AND threatening to kill him, etc. That's why he says 「一つや二つ」.


5

For the most part, yes. There are a few outliers that don't though. Most 尊敬語 and 謙譲語 verbs don't form nouns with their 連用形. And some 連用形, such as 「なり」, are specialized almost to the point of uselessness.


4

(([浮世離]{うきよばな}れした[幼]{おさな}い少女を)(思うさま)[玩弄]{がんろう}し、[破壊]{はかい}し[尽]{つく}す)([背徳]{はいとく}の)欲望が[掻]{か}き立てられてやまない。 浮世離れした幼い少女 is the object for both 玩弄し(#1?≒[弄]{もてあそ}ぶ... "toy with"? but probably physically, not mentally) and 破壊し尽す. 思うさま(≒思うがまま) modifies 玩弄し. 玩弄し and 破壊し尽す both modify 欲望.


4

To some degree, 形容動詞 can flip between nouns and adjectives, but this is largely due to the fact that the morphology is nearly identical (the one difference is である vs な for modifying other nouns). There is also a very small number of loan nouns that already look like verbs and so are slangishly used as verbs (e.g. ググル>ググる). Beyond those, zero-derivation ...


4

I had to consult with one of my friends regarding this (specifically regarding point 2), as it felt a little ambiguous to me, but now I've come to understand that it's not ambiguous. [[[色あせた]青]ににじむ][白い雲]。[[遠い[あの日]]の]いろ。 [[[faded] blue]-DAT blur] [white clouds]. [[distant [that day]]-GEN] color. Literal: 'The white clouds which blur into the faded ...


4

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it's describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. I think that ...


2

Don't forget about words like そんな, どういう, あのような, etc! I think you mostly don't need a separate noun. For a sense like The health care provider will choose the best type of insulin for you ... where there may be specific describable "versions" or "types" of something that come to mind (with different purposes etc.), 種類 seems like a good fit. It doesn't ...


2

It seems to just be an emphatic, stylistic lengthening of the の preceding it.


2

To my ears あと sounds like an adverb - it's not 'one bit of remainder', it's 'one remaining bit'. あと is kind of in a weird place between noun and adverb, since a lot of the time it requires a particle, but a phrase like あとどれくらい may make this situation a bit more obvious - you can't quite do the same thing with a noun where あと is unless you use a particle (so ...


2

What should be analysed is not 元を去りました but 彼女の元を去りました. 彼女の元: her side 去る: to leave Combining them yields: 彼女の元を去りました: "(the staff) left her side" (no longer with her)


1

The best way to think of this is that there are 2 types of words here. Ones such as 近い that are adjectives being transformed into nouns and ones such as 赤 that are nouns being transformed into adjectives. If you look at Japanese there are tons of words that are often used as nouns that can be made into adjectives just by adding い, for example 四角 -> 四角い、 黄色 ...


1

There is often more than one way to turn adjectives into nouns. 赤さ and 近さ are nouns too. The semantic relationship between 赤い and 赤 is quite different from the one between 近い and the noun 近く. When learning about related words in different classes, I would learn the productive derivations (~さ is productive), and then deal with the fact that the rest have to ...


1

You are considering both of these words from the point of view of i-adjectives, but think differently. 赤 noun → 赤い/赤く adjective derived from a noun by attaching "-i/-ku" 近い/近く adjective → 近く noun derived from an adjective by zero-nominalization


1

The affix く is used with i-adjectives in normal conditions. The exceptions (when く is not used) is when an i-adjective is used for compounding or in the plain non-past form, which ends with い. さ is known as an affix generally used to change an i-adjective or na-adjective into a noun. み is an affix that idiocyncratically attaches to some i-adjectives that it ...



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