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11

Strictly speaking, 鍵{かぎ} is key and 錠{じょう} is lock. However, in daily speech, 錠 is hardly ever used. Usually, people will say 鍵 to mean either key or lock, and the context will make it clear which one it is. However, the じょう reading does appear in several common combinations: 施錠{せじょう} (to) lock 開錠{かいじょう} unlock 南京錠{なんきんじょう} padlock


11

仲間: People who share the same goal and work/struggle/fight together in a group or organization. They often can be your close friends, too, but that's not necessary. A person whom you personally dislike, or whom you don't even know, can sometimes be your 仲間. In One Piece it sounds dramatic because it's about people who share the same destiny, literally in the ...


8

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


8

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


7

The way I understand it is that 錠{じょう} is generally used for "lock" and 鍵{かぎ} for "key". 鍵 can mean "lock" in some contexts however (this is almost certainly incomplete): 鍵を掛ける - to lock (something)(literally something like "turn a key on (something)") 鍵が掛かっている/鍵が掛かった - (something) is locked 鍵を開ける - to unlock (something) 鍵を取り付ける - "install a ...


7

Without additional context, this sounds like a newspaper headline or something similar. In which case, the へ would act as "to" or "toward", implying the direction the Telefonica company will take in their business. Something like "Telefonica to head toward product investment next year" Again, if it's a headline or something, the verb is omitted yet ...


7

A native speaker here. Between the two ways you parsed the line, the second one is much better though still not perfect. The first period placed after the にじむ in your second attempt is unnecessary. Nearly all native speaers would consider 色あせる or 色あせた as one word, therefore; we would not even think that a が or の is being omitted. All of 色あせた、青ににじむ and 白い ...


7

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 ...


7

「[自分]{じぶん}は[死]{し}ぬ[前]{まえ}に[一目思]{ひとめおもう}う[女]{おんな}に[逢]{あ}いたいと[云]{い}った。」 The part that you are misreading is 「一目思う女に逢いたい」, which can be rephrased as 「思う女に一目逢いたい」. 「一目」 modifies「逢いたい」, and not 「思う」. In fact, it is impossible to "一目思う a person" in the first place; It just makes no sense. 「一目会いたい」 is a common set phrase meaning "to want to see someone even ...


6

Yes, this example sentence is natural. 人間【にんげん】 can be used, as well as 人【ひと】, when one shows their hatred against someone, or when one wants to keep a distance from someone. 私はあの人が好きです。: OK 私はあの人が嫌いです。: OK 私はあの人間が好きです。: Weird 私はあの人間が嫌いです。: OK To me, #4 sounds even more hostile than #2. Likewise, 「彼はそういう人です。(That's how he is.)」 can be ...


6

「[新]{しん}メニュー」 is a very common phrase. We say 新ドラマ、新アニメ、新プラン、新ビール, etc. all the time and I do not think anyone finds it "improper". At least, I have never heard a native speaker complaining about it. What is extremely uncommon is that they inserted the 「ウ」 in there. Or is that a typo on your part? We do say 「[新]{あたら}しいメニュー」 as well, but the phrase lacks ...


6

For the most part, yes. There are a few outliers that don't though. Most 尊敬語 and 謙譲語 verbs don't form nouns with their 連用形. And some 連用形, such as 「なり」, are specialized almost to the point of uselessness.


6

圧力 here means "pressure to do something (or not do something)". E.g.: 論文を発表しないよう圧力を受けた (I was pressured to not publish my paper). There could be multiple, distinct ways of applying such pressure, like freezing one's account AND threatening to kill him, etc. That's why he says 「一つや二つ」.


6

X在住 is the closest answer for your question. This can be used like 私は東京在住です。 and 東京在住の日本人. Also X居住 is acceptable. The difference between them is where the subject is living, which here means X. X in X在住 are like country, province, city or village. X in X居住 are like house, apartment.


6

I'm afraid I don't have any authoritative reference, but have you checked the Wikipedia article 婦人? 大正デモクラシーの時期、婦人という語は、普通選挙権要求運動とも連動し、斬新な響きを持った。「婦人公論」に代表されるように、「意識の高い成人女性」との響きさえあった。 婦人という語感が、「年輩女性」「既婚女性」との意味合いを持つようになり、次第に使われなくなった。 現代の日本語においてより一般化した呼称が「女性」である。「婦人」の語はやや古めかしいイメージを持つ古語になりつつある。 So 婦人 was a stylish word back in the early 20th ...


5

Both 「[多]{おお}い」 and 「多くの」 mean "many" but their usages are completely different. Grammar in terms of parts of speech: 「多い」 is an adjective all by itself. 「多くの」=「多く」 + 「の」. 「多く」 is a noun meaning "plenty" and because it is a noun, it needs to be followed directly by 「の」 to function like an adjective. Usages: To express "many (noun)", one can say ...


5

It's surprisingly easy to trace the origin of 女性観 since 日本国語大辞典 (日国) cites its first appearance. *吾輩は猫である〔1905〜06〕〈夏目漱石〉一一「古来の賢哲が女性観を紹介すべし」 But I don't much think it's appropriate to say it was "coined", because it's but an ordinary idea to put them together if you know both the words 女性 and 観. By the way, 女性 itself seems to have gained the meaning ...


4

The sentence is fine in a storybook sense. It is not a complete sentence, but books don't always use complete sentences--English included. The verb is implied, though it wouldn't be いました like you wrote. ありました or more colorfully perhaps (が)待っていました。 You can omit anything that is understood without it. As Japanese is very verb-centric it's more common to ...


4

To some degree, 形容動詞 can flip between nouns and adjectives, but this is largely due to the fact that the morphology is nearly identical (the one difference is である vs な for modifying other nouns). There is also a very small number of loan nouns that already look like verbs and so are slangishly used as verbs (e.g. ググル>ググる). Beyond those, zero-derivation ...


4

I had to consult with one of my friends regarding this (specifically regarding point 2), as it felt a little ambiguous to me, but now I've come to understand that it's not ambiguous. [[[色あせた]青]ににじむ][白い雲]。[[遠い[あの日]]の]いろ。 [[[faded] blue]-DAT blur] [white clouds]. [[distant [that day]]-GEN] color. Literal: 'The white clouds which blur into the faded ...


4

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it's describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. I think that ...


4

There is a way that ~もの can be applied to all verbs to "make them a noun", but it's not the way you're thinking of. If you have a verb (e.g. 走る【はしる】 "to run") and a noun (e.g. 人【ひと】 "person"), you can always take the dictionary form (辞書形【じしょけい】) of the verb and put it before the noun, to get a construction that means something like "[noun] that [verb]s" ...


4

The thing is that in this sentence, what is uninteresting is not the 物 but the fact that you eat the same thing everyday. Thus, you can "nominalize" the verb into 食べるの. After that, it's simply a matter of 「は」indicating the subject. You can thus parenthesize the phrase as : 「毎日同じ物を食べるの」は面白くない Note that this is similar, albeit with a different nuance to ...


4

I think the word "Tomodachi" often represents people the person is close with who are of (approximately) the same age. By contrast, the word "Nakama" often represents someone with whom the person shares a goal or an acquaintance.


4

You probably mean 意気込み(Ikigomi in Romaji, いきごみ in Hiragana). 意気込み means your enthusiasm trying to do something. 意気込み is sometimes used like "今の意気込みをお願いします。" which means "Tell me your enthusiasm to try this." This phrase is often heard some TV program, say a sports player is asked this question for his/her short comment on something about to try.


3

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (= attributive form) of the Clasical auxiliary verb 「き」, which expresses "past tense". As in your examples, it is sometimes used in the Modern context when the author wants it to sound "literary" and/or "dramatic". Today, it is used almost exclusively in fiction. 「[背負]{せお}いし[者]{もの}」=「背負った者」 「かつて[来]{き}たりし者」=「かつて来た者」 ...


3

It seems to just be an emphatic, stylistic lengthening of the の preceding it.



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