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14

They both mean the same thing but the nuance is as follows: 〜さ (as in 悲しさ、楽しさ、痛さ) indicates a degree or an amount of 〜 〜み (as in 悲しみ、楽しみ、痛み)indicates a state of being I find the following contrasting examples as definitive: A:「痛さはどれくらいですか?」 = implies amount B:「痛み*の程*はどれくらいですか?」 = we add 程(ほど) to indicate an amount However, to make things easier ...


13

Here is how I and many other native speakers use the two words in real life. I am answering without looking at anything. 「静かさ」 describes the bare physical degree of how "not loud" a thing is. Quietness, while it may be desired, is not a prerequisite here. Examples: 「静かさ」 is used to talk about how quiet a car, airconditioner, street, person, etc. is. ...


10

〜さ seems to describe a "measurable" amount, while 〜み seems to describe a general concept of the adjective. 悲しみ - the general concept of sadness 映画の悲しさ - the (amount of) sadness of that movie (possibly compared to other movies). That's how I tend to compare them. Also note that many of these types of adjective have corresponding verbs, such as ...


9

You're probably confused because it looks like two verbs together, してる and 覚えない (neg. of 覚える) But it's actually a relative clause ending in してる, modifying the noun 覚え, with a particle (は or が) colloquially being dropped between 覚え and ない. 覚え as a noun here is definition 2 in this dictionary: 記憶に残っている事柄。また、思い当たること。心覚え。「この顔には覚えがある」「身に覚えがない」 So memory, ...


8

私、そんなに悪いことしてるおぼえ(は)ないんだけど.. I think you parse it now.


8

This 願わくば is a fixed expression fossilized long ago, and you just have to memorize it without thinking about it too much. It's a literary expression that corresponds to "Hopefully, ..." used as a sentence adverb. As pointed out in the comment, this is related to ク語法, a grammatical feature which had already dropped out of use more than 1000 years ago. It was ...


7

Short answer: nominalization. In this case, it's not really a quirk of the Japanese language, at least you're doing pretty much the same in English as well. In English, we don't say *My hobby is play the guitar. *As for my hobby, play the guitar. The pattern A is B needs two things (either a noun, or mentioning a word or phrase, as in swim is ...


7

「とは」 here is not being used for nominalization. As a matter of fact, I could not think of a situation where 「とは」 could be used for pure nominalization. We are talking about 「とは」 and not 「ことは」, right? 「彼がひどいことをしたとは信じがたい。」 = "I find it hard to believe that he did such an awful thing." to borrow your own TL. In this sentence, 「とは」 expresses the ...


7

To break down, this とは is the quotative particle と, followed by the "topic marker" は. Probably you already know how to use と in sentences like these: 彼が学生だと聞いている。 I've heard he's a student. 明日は晴れると思う。 I think it will be fine tomorrow. プロジェクトが成功すると信じている。 I believe the project will succeed. When you add は after と, such は will function as the ...


7

誰かを邪魔するのは悪い lit. Disturbing someone is bad 誰かを邪魔しては悪い lit. If/should it disturb(s) someone, it is bad の is but a nominalizer, while ては is a conditional expression. You can translate the latter as "disturbing someone is bad" in some situations too, but the two are different in principle. Maybe a better translation is "I'm afraid of disturbing ...


6

The sentence-final copula である ("be") is almost always omitted because it's obvious in definitions, leaving the sentences looking like ending with nouns. Both もの and こと are frequently used nominalizers translating "what do ~" and "doing ~" respectively. すなわち、1. (...) 2. (...) となるもの。 i.e. what satisfies 1. (...) and 2. (...). f:S→T が全射であるとは、f(S)=T ...


6

I believe that the の here is the same の as the の which is explained in this thread: What is the difference between the nominalizers こと and の? Basically the の here is a noun which means "thing". It is similar to こと (noun) which also means "thing". The difference between の and こと is that の is used when the "thing" is related to the speaker. This is furthur ...


6

In "regular" Modern grammar, it would not be considered correct to say: 「毎日{まいにち}、同{おな}じ物{もの}を食{た}べるは、おもしろくない。」 You need to place the nominalizer 「の」 between 「食べる」 and 「は」. In Classical Japanese, however, it was more than correct to place a subject marker 「は」 or 「が」 directly after a verb in its dictionary form. Even today, you will occasionally ...


6

You seem to be a native English speaker, so try thinking about it this way. The sentence could be roughly translated as follows. I like looking at drawings. However, could you say the following? I like look at drawings. No. That is not valid English because you can only like a noun. "looking" is a noun that represents an action. Similarly, えをみる ...


5

Flaw's answer is of course correct, but here's another way to look at it. Start with a simple sentence like this: 犬{いぬ}が好{す}きだ。 "I like dogs." Since the predicate is a na-adjective, 好きだ, the object (犬) needs to be marked by が. (Your second sentence is ungrammatical for this reason, btw.) Then, if you want to say something like "I like running.", ...


5

The nominalisation occurs with just の. を and が are case markers and the choice between them depends on the other part of the sentence; whether a verb that assigns a を argument is used, or a verbal nominal adjective (such as 好き that takes が for object marking1), or a stative clause. Verb: 宿題をするのを忘れた Verbal Nominal Adjective: 水を飲むのが好きです Stative verb: ...


5

With verbs, no の is necessary at all. You can say [僕は泳ぐ方が散歩するより好きです]{ぼくはおよぐほうがさんぽするよりすきです}. That being said, as user4092 says, you can use の, in which case it's [僕は泳ぐのの方が散歩するより好きです]{ぼくはおよぐののほうがさんぽするよりすきです}. It's impermissible to only use one の, because the two の are different. (Though it may have been permissible archaically, where most particles could ...


5

I wanted to say "I want to hear Asuka-chan play the piano!" The easiest and most common way to say that would be by nominalizing Asuka's action of playing the piano. How do we do that? It is very simple. First, form a regular sentence meaning "Asuka plays the piano." 「あすかちゃんはピアノを[弾]{ひ}く」 Now, change the 「は」 to 「が」 and add 「の」 at the very end. ...


4

「[僕]{ぼく}の[人生]{じんせい}が[変]{か}わったのや、[明]{あか}るい[人]{ひと}になったのは、[全部彼]{ぜんぶかれ}のおかげなんだ!」 is grammatical and even sounds fairly natural. The only part that does not quite sound natural is 「明るい人」. We would rarely use 「人」 that way to refer to oneself, but again, it is still all grammatical. You could say 「明るくなった」. Am I using the right particles? Yes, you ...


4

Interesting question! The cases I can think of are ~より, ~には, ~にしても, ~にあたって バスで行くより、歩いて行くほうが早い It's faster to walk than to take the bus 日本に行くには、ビザが必要だ You need a visa to go to Japan 正しいにしても、やはり心配だ Even if it's true, I'm still concerned 参加するにあたって欠かせない This is necessary for participating There are probably others. As to why ...


4

The thing is that in this sentence, what is uninteresting is not the 物 but the fact that you eat the same thing everyday. Thus, you can "nominalize" the verb into 食べるの. After that, it's simply a matter of 「は」indicating the subject. You can thus parenthesize the phrase as : 「毎日同じ物を食べるの」は面白くない Note that this is similar, albeit with a different nuance to ...


4

デジタル大辞泉 says 遠く is a noun which means 遠いところ. So yes, it was somehow nominalized and lexicalized in this form long ago. At least we can say 遠くから来る, 遠くに行く, 遠くへ行く, 遠くを見つめる, 遠くで音がする, 遠くの国, 遠くがよく見える, and so on. 近く works in the same way. The list of similar expressions is very small, according to this article. Here's the list: 古く (old time), 早く (early time), 遅く ...


4

The こと means [場合]{ばあい}, "case, circumstance, occasion, instance" (See definition #②-6-㋑ in デジタル大辞泉). You can use 「~ことが多い(です)」 to mean 「~場合が多い(です)」, "It is often the case that..." "in many cases..." "often..." "tend to..." etc. So, your example sentence can be rephrased this way: [外]{そと}で[物]{もの}を[売]{う}っていることが[多]{おお}いです。 ≂ 外で物を売っている[場合]{ばあい}が多いです。 ...


3

I am just as confused as you, but using the first two answers (のが好きだ, のは危ない) as a hint, the sorting I came up with is: のが: 好きだ、早い、遅い、上手だ のは: 危ない、難しい、体にいい、無理だ、気持ちがいい、楽しい のを: 忘れた、知っている (I could be totally wrong though!) Method: Choose a topic that mostly fits all the words. (I chose 走る) From the get go, 走るのが好きだ and 走るのは好きだ are both valid ...


3

Strictly speaking these two sentences have completely different meaning: 住んでいるのが好き。 - This means that you like the fact someone is living (somewhere). This could be you too, but that's not very clear way to tell it. Let's drop all the wrong usages of this phrase. 住むのが好き 。 - This means you like to live (somewhere).


3

I have found something that might be useful from poking around in the etymological information I have to hand. Shogakukan notes in their entry for 静{しず}か that the noun form is 静かさ. There is no separate entry for 静かさ。 When looking to see if there was an entry for 静けさ, I found an entry instead for 静けし, which lists a noun form of 静けさ. 静{しず}けし appears to be ...


3

This is not a 'productive' grammar. There are certain cases (e.g. 近い・近くの、多い・多くの) where there are both noun and i-adjective forms, but you don't generally see "高くの". Where the noun form exists it will generally have a dictionary entry as well. And of course, there are only a few basic colours which even have the i-adjective form. For the colours, I'm ...


3

tori wo tsukamaeru "I catch birds." "I will catch the bird." This is a full sentence, as you can see in the English meanings provided. tori wo tsukamaeru koto "catching birds" When you add koto on the end, it becomes a noun. Since it is a noun, you can use as part of a larger sentence: tori wo tsukamaeru koto ha kantan ja nai ...



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