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49

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


22

YOU and Mark have already mentioned that 全然 can be used with a small set of positive descriptions, and that this is usage is not considered correct (which might be true, but it's absurdly common, so that doesn't really matter). But my impression is that the positive version of 全然 is not really limited to a small set of words, but rather to particular ...


14

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


13

Like YOU mentioned, Zenzen being used with positive words is slang and not correct Japanese. That being said, Japanese people use it all the time, especially young people. Typically I hear 全然 with OK、大丈夫、平気, 楽しい、and きれい with others possibly I haven't heard. That is to say that the words that are used with 全然 in a positive sense are probably limited to just ...


12

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


12

Here is how I and many other native speakers use the two words in real life. I am answering without looking at anything. 「静かさ」 describes the bare physical degree of how "not loud" a thing is. Quietness, while it may be desired, is not a prerequisite here. Examples: 「静かさ」 is used to talk about how quiet a car, airconditioner, street, person, etc. is. ...


10

In traditional grammar, words that inflect, called 用言{ようげん}, are given six inflected forms, called 活用形{かつようけい}: 未然形(みぜんけい)   irrealis form 連用形(れんようけい)  continuative form 終止形(しゅうしけい)  terminal form 連体形(れんたいけい)  adnominal form 仮定形(かていけい)   hypothetical form (see note 1) 命令形(めいれいけい)  imperative form And in traditional grammar, だ is considered a type of ...


10

I'm not sure if there's a real answer to that. At least not something that will help you learn which is which. Some 形容動詞 take な, some take の, and some take both. How did that happen? That's quite simple. All 形容動詞 are in fact a special class of nouns. In academic English material, they are often called "adjectival nouns" or even "descriptive nouns", to ...


7

My understanding is that な-adj are actually a completely different type of word that are closer to nouns but are taught as な-Adj. taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_adjectives adjectival verbs 形容詞 keiyōshi adjectival verbs, i-adjectives, adjectives, stative verbs adjectival nouns 形容動詞 keiyōdōshi adjectival nouns, ...


7

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


7

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 ...


6

In short, -raka and -yaka are compound of -ra + -ka and -ya + -ka, respectively. -ra, -ya, and -ka are all derivational suffixes that add a stative sense. -ya is rather rare. In the Old Japanese corpus, I can only find three words: nikoya, nagoya, and fuwaya. This suggests that suffix was of only limited productivity then and explains why it was soon ...


6

The term 「細やか」, as suggested by the letter "細", has the nuance like finesse, delicateness, subtleness, sensitiveness. So when it is used to modify 配慮(concideration/care), the outline of the meaning of the expression "細やかな配慮" is that there has been a careful, adequate and warm care for the students, which supported each student in need. The support was ...


5

The simplest way of saying "you've gotten better" is 上手になりました. A lot of the time you hear ね after that :)


5

AはBが好き/嫌いだ means A likes/dislikes B. は indicates the theme and が indicate the subject, it litteraly means "About A : B is liked". There are many adjectives that follow this pattern in which what would be the direct object in english is the subject in japanese. 私は彼が羨ましい。 I envy him. "To me, he is enviable." Not strictly an answer to your ...


4

全然 has slang form, which means like exceptionally, extremely. So you can use it in both forms.


4

If we are to follow how Japanese dictionaries classify them, we don't have to worry about the fact "not all na-type adjectives can be used as real nouns". The Japanese dictionary lists 健康 as both 名詞 (noun) and 形容動詞 (na-adjective) so that's why it can be used as a noun. On the other hand, 確か is not listed as noun, therefore it cannot be used as a noun. One ...


4

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it's describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. I think that ...


3

I have found something that might be useful from poking around in the etymological information I have to hand. Shogakukan notes in their entry for 静{しず}か that the noun form is 静かさ. There is no separate entry for 静かさ。 When looking to see if there was an entry for 静けさ, I found an entry instead for 静けし, which lists a noun form of 静けさ. 静{しず}けし appears to be ...


3

I would recommend avoiding projecting English/Western linguistic terminology onto Japanese as much as humanly possible, as it will mostly just distort what is really going on. Focus on how it is used until you're ready to read about native Japanese linguistic analysis. 他に is ほかに because that's how it's used, in the end. A more satisfying answer in between ...


3

Although the suffix -さ does turn adjectives into nouns, it also changes the meaning:   幸せ    happiness   幸せさ   the degree of happiness Since the suffix changes the meaning, 幸せさ isn't interchangeable with 幸せ. Presumably, the songwriter wrote しあわせ rather than しあわせさ because it had the meaning they wanted to express. But meaning aside, how can you tell ...


3

I don't think "一生懸命" by itself has any particular connotations either way. Definitions given in Kenkyuusha's 新和英大辞典 range from "desperate, frantic", to "earnest,eager". It really seems to depend on context. It just means that whatever you're doing, good or bad or in-between, you're doing it full-out. In the example, I really don't get any sense at all of a ...


3

Is there even 1 na-type adjective that can't be used as a real noun as shown in (b) (to prove that passage right) ? : Yes. 確かに一つの答えは確かだ。


3

You could have guessed it, but そっくり can be used as na-adjective (形容動詞). E.g. お父さんにそっくりな顔でびっくりしました。 His face was so much like his dad's I was shocked. 昌吉にそっくりな性格だね。 He's so much like Shoukichi. 自分(に/と)そっくりなキャラクターを作りました。 I created a character that looked just like me. More examples at Space ALC. This does happen often with words ...


2

I think the best place start an answering your question is by addressing the differnce between 直接的に/直接に and 絶対/絶対的に. In both cases the ~的 adverb is used to describe more abstract matters: Compare: ~と直接に|eyeball-to-eyeball with ~について自身で直接に学ぶ |learn at first hand about To: 直接的に in a direct way/in a straightforward fashion/in a straightforward ...



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