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43

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


21

YOU and Mark have already mentioned that 全然 can be used with a small set of positive descriptions, and that this is usage is not considered correct (which might be true, but it's absurdly common, so that doesn't really matter). But my impression is that the positive version of 全然 is not really limited to a small set of words, but rather to particular ...


13

Like YOU mentioned, Zenzen being used with positive words is slang and not correct Japanese. That being said, Japanese people use it all the time, especially young people. Typically I hear 全然 with OK、大丈夫、平気, 楽しい、and きれい with others possibly I haven't heard. That is to say that the words that are used with 全然 in a positive sense are probably limited to just ...


13

新しい is a famous example of metathesis. Originally, it was [新]{あら}たし. Over the time, the positions of ら and た have switched, and the new form [新]{あたら}し was created, which evolved into today's standard form 新しい, and today, the old form is preserved only as the na-adjective 新た. Na-adjectives are often used to incorporate Chinese words, and those words generally ...


13

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


11

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


11

I'm not sure if there's a real answer to that. At least not something that will help you learn which is which. Some 形容動詞 take な, some take の, and some take both. How did that happen? That's quite simple. All 形容動詞 are in fact a special class of nouns. In academic English material, they are often called "adjectival nouns" or even "descriptive nouns", to ...


9

In traditional grammar, words that inflect, called 用言{ようげん}, are given six inflected forms, called 活用形{かつようけい}: 未然形(みぜんけい)   irrealis form 連用形(れんようけい)  continuative form 終止形(しゅうしけい)  terminal form 連体形(れんたいけい)  adnominal form 仮定形(かていけい)   hypothetical form (see note 1) 命令形(めいれいけい)  imperative form And in traditional grammar, だ is considered a type of ...


7

My understanding is that な-adj are actually a completely different type of word that are closer to nouns but are taught as な-Adj. taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_adjectives adjectival verbs 形容詞 keiyōshi adjectival verbs, i-adjectives, adjectives, stative verbs adjectival nouns 形容動詞 keiyōdōshi adjectival nouns, ...


7

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 ...


6

ジャンルくじイラスト募集要項 states that they are going to hold a ジャンルくじイラスト企画 again this year. Participants will be requested to draw a lottery with a topic written on it (=ジャンルが書かれたくじを引いて) at 例会 or その他の場所 and draw an illustration that's related to the topic written on the lottery (=それに書かれたジャンルのイラストを描く). If you want to draw a lottery (=くじを引く人は、), their staff members ...


6

In short, -raka and -yaka are compound of -ra + -ka and -ya + -ka, respectively. -ra, -ya, and -ka are all derivational suffixes that add a stative sense. -ya is rather rare. In the Old Japanese corpus, I can only find three words: nikoya, nagoya, and fuwaya. This suggests that suffix was of only limited productivity then and explains why it was soon ...


5

The simplest way of saying "you've gotten better" is 上手になりました. A lot of the time you hear ね after that :)


4

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it's describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. I think that ...


4

In word formation, there is a rule known as Right Hand Head Rule, which states that the component that comes to the right side of a complex word determines the base meaning and the grammatical category (parts of speech) of the whole word, and is called the head. This applies to Japanese as well. In all of your examples, 好き and 嫌い are the heads of the ...


4

If we are to follow how Japanese dictionaries classify them, we don't have to worry about the fact "not all na-type adjectives can be used as real nouns". The Japanese dictionary lists 健康 as both 名詞 (noun) and 形容動詞 (na-adjective) so that's why it can be used as a noun. On the other hand, 確か is not listed as noun, therefore it cannot be used as a noun. One ...


4

I don't think "一生懸命" by itself has any particular connotations either way. Definitions given in Kenkyuusha's 新和英大辞典 range from "desperate, frantic", to "earnest,eager". It really seems to depend on context. It just means that whatever you're doing, good or bad or in-between, you're doing it full-out. In the example, I really don't get any sense at all of a ...


4

全然 has slang form, which means like exceptionally, extremely. So you can use it in both forms.


3

You could have guessed it, but そっくり can be used as na-adjective (形容動詞). E.g. お父さんにそっくりな顔でびっくりしました。 His face was so much like his dad's I was shocked. 昌吉にそっくりな性格だね。 He's so much like Shoukichi. 自分(に/と)そっくりなキャラクターを作りました。 I created a character that looked just like me. More examples at Space ALC. This does happen often with words ...


3

の is a noun with general reference. The na-adjective attributively modifies it. は is the topic marker. So you get 人気なのは "as for the thing that is popular".


3

I would recommend avoiding projecting English/Western linguistic terminology onto Japanese as much as humanly possible, as it will mostly just distort what is really going on. Focus on how it is used until you're ready to read about native Japanese linguistic analysis. 他に is ほかに because that's how it's used, in the end. A more satisfying answer in between ...


3

Although the suffix -さ does turn adjectives into nouns, it also changes the meaning:   幸せ    happiness   幸せさ   the degree of happiness Since the suffix changes the meaning, 幸せさ isn't interchangeable with 幸せ. Presumably, the songwriter wrote しあわせ rather than しあわせさ because it had the meaning they wanted to express. But meaning aside, how can you tell ...


2

My impression is that, practically speaking, 「たくさん」 is used only as a noun? Unless you belong to the school who believes that 形容動詞 are really nouns, I don't think it's a noun, e.g. you cannot say *たくさんを食べる. And I don't see any examples in the goo dictionary that suggest it's more of a noun than any other 形容動詞. Is this issue related to the meaning ...


2

I think the best place start an answering your question is by addressing the differnce between 直接的に/直接に and 絶対/絶対的に. In both cases the ~的 adverb is used to describe more abstract matters: Compare: ~と直接に|eyeball-to-eyeball with ~について自身で直接に学ぶ |learn at first hand about To: 直接的に in a direct way/in a straightforward fashion/in a straightforward ...


2

うまい can be written with the same kanji as [上]{じょう}[手]{ず}: [上手]{うま}い. As you have in your English phrase, the natural way to say it in Japanese is to use "have gotten" or "become", which is なる in Japanese, as ジョン answers. Alternatively, it is possible to stick with だ or です as in your answer using もっと, but in that case, the standard for comparison is not ...


2

Is there even 1 na-type adjective that can't be used as a real noun as shown in (b) (to prove that passage right) ? : Yes. 確かに一つの答えは確かだ。


2

Strictly speaking し is better used in its full form ~し~し. E.g. この町は美しいし静かだし、住みやすそうですね。 This town is pretty, it is quiet—it seems to be very liveable. (It does occur by itself, but a longer list is usually implied. There are other uses that derive from this one, but that is a different matter.) It lists any number of properties, which support your ...



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