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13

First, 「おっしゃい」 is the imperative form of the verb 「[仰]{おっしゃ}る」」, which is the honorific form of 「[言]{い}う」. 「うそおっしゃい。」 means exactly the opposite of what it means literally. It always means "Don't lie (to me)!" A more common form is: 「うそつけ!」, which also literally means "Tell a lie!", actually means "Don't lie!" 100% of the time. The nuance of ...


11

留 means stay, and 守 means guard, so 留守 literary means "stay and guard (home)". It actually used to mean just like this in the old Japanese. 留守 referred to keeping the house while the master is away from home. However, such usage is dying or at least very literary now. The main meaning of 留守 in modern Japanese is "not at home". "留守にする" always means "be away ...


8

In short, your waiter said what he said because it is the "in" thing to do for young workers (mostly part-time) at inexpensive restaurants, fast food places, convenience stores, etc. This speech style is called 「マニュアル[敬語]{けいご}」, 「コンビニ[言葉]{ことば}」、「ファミレス言葉」, etc. and it has been very common the last 20 years or so. (マニュアル = "manual", ファミレス = "family ...


8

The best English phrase that I could think of that would retain the nuance of the original is: "whether they live or die". You do not need to translate 「にしても」 twice just because it is used twice in the original. What is more important is how things sound in the target language. The first 5 characters 「人間なんて」 already tells us that the speaker looks ...


7

The direct object particle を stands next to the word of phrase that is the direct object in your sentence. This phrase in your translation is 「わたし の てがみ の うえ の つくえ」. To analyse the meaning of this phrase, let's look at its parts: 「わたし の てがみ」 - My letter. 「わたし の てがみ の うえ」 - Above my letter. 「わたし の てがみ の うえ の つくえ」 - The desk above my letter. So the direct ...


7

の here is not a possessive の, it's a nominalizer, a formal noun. こんな is adjectival and cannot by itself constitute a noun phrase. In other words, こんな means "this type of", こんなの means "this type of thing".


7

「[詰]{つ}め」 originally means "checkmating" in Japanese board games. From that, we often use the word to refer to the "final stage" or "final move" in all kinds of things. 「[甘]{あま}い」 here does not mean "sweet". It means "not severe", "permissive", etc. If you were being permissive or lenient at the final stage of a game of chess or something, you would not ...


7

Answering the question without looking at anything.... Let us start with 「バーゲン」 because it is the simpler of the two in terms of meaning and usage. Quite simply, it means "a store-wide clearance sale" in retail. It is a considerably larger event than a 「セール」, which may be limited to certain sections or items in the store. We have another common word ...


7

It's just that 友人 is more formal than 友達. I don't feel there is any difference in what they refer to. For example, saying 「友人が会社を経営していまして。。。」 in a job interview would sound natural, but saying「友達が会社を経営していまして。。。」 sounds a bit childish. Conversely, 「ずっと友人でいような!」is weird but 「ずっと友達でいような!」 is natural.


6

ひとつ(で) actually applies to the previous word 投げ方 here. It's kind of like だけ in this usage; he is saying to become able to control the result of the dice solely through just the 投げ方 (way of throwing). In the above sentence, the 投げ方 is described as the sole deciding factor for producing the result. Wiktionary has a good example of the usage: ...


6

It is legit. From 大辞林 ⑦ 数の単位。澗(かん)の1万倍,すなわち10の40乗。 〔塵劫記〕 Also, from the Wikipedia JP page on "正 (数)". 正(せい)は漢字文化圏における数の単位の一つ。正がいくつを示すかは時代や地域により異なるが、現在では1040を示す。 You can see a list of these numerical terms for large numbers on the Wikipedia JP page on "命数法". Oh, here's an English version. That said, while 大辞林 has the corresponding entry for each ...


6

I think 「駆逐する」 is stronger than get rid, but not as strong as exterminate. Literally speaking, 駆 means to drive, and 逐 means to chase. As 大辞泉 says, there is no meaning of killing or destroying explicitly included in this word. However, 駆逐 is almost always used in a military context, and usually implies killing or destroying, as the simplest measure to keep ...


6

友人 is more formal than 友達. I think this formality results in the side effect of it suggesting a closer friendship, because one would usually not refer to someone as a friend in Japanese in a serious conversation if they were not close, in my opinion. So no, they are not identical — there are situations where one makes more sense to use than the other — but ...


4

This looks to me like a case of the conditional と, basically meaning 'if/when'. The sentence then breaks down like this: [[友人に彼女ができると]辛い] You've got 彼女ができる a bit wrong - it's not 'become a girlfriend' but rather 'get a girlfriend'. You have to figure out what 友人に is doing here, also. The '[someone] gets a girlfriend' doesn't have a marked subject or ...


4

Trusting that the unmentioned subject of the verb 「[曲]{ま}げて[捉]{とら}えている」 is the listener as shown in your TL, I might go with something like: "I feel that you're distorting my meaning, (I'm afraid)." "Misunderstanding", to me sounds kind of too innocent (unless that fits the larger context better).


4

I think it's just a number. In theory, you could use it any time you wanted to say 1040, like if you were describing the number of ways you could choose 45 objects out of a bag of 160 objects, but in practice I doubt it would be written or spoken that way. Japanese has lots of words for big numbers. Actually, English has some too! You could equally ask ...


4

If you are familiar with the general difference between on-readings (音読み) and kun-readings (訓読み), you already know the basic difference between 形【かたち】 (kun) and 形状【けいじょう】 (on). 形 is used in informal conversations/writings and most of formal conversations, while 形状 is preferred in formal written texts or scientific articles. Usually Japanese children learn ...


4

I think it's related to the sense mentioned by Brandon, from an underlying idea of "something that sticks out visually", hence the use of 目{め} "eye". This same sense of "visually notable or prominent feature" gives rise to many other uses of 目{め}, such as 結{むす}び目{め} "knot" from 結{むす}び "tying" + 目{め} "visually prominent feature", or 籠{かご}目{め} "lattice" from ...


4

起きる literally means "to get up", while 目覚める means "(your) eyes are opened". This can mean either literally (i.e., waking up from sleep) or metaphorically (come to one's senses, come to a realization).


3

I am not sure if those are used as separate words other than as parts of the words ディスカウントストア and バーゲンセール. Even if they are, I think the meaning carries over the meaning of these more common words, so that ディスカウント implies things sold at low price regularly at particular stores while バーゲン implies a temporal sale at any kind of a store.


3

There is virtually no difference in meaning but there is a slight difference in nuance, therefore, in actual usage. Using 「どのような批判があろう + が」 could make you sound a bit more defensive and/or excited about your own opinion being presented than when using 「どのような批判があろう + と」. The latter would help show your composure as an author better than the former. Without ...


3

日本間 A room created using traditional Japanese architecture, interior design, construction materials. More of an objective/neutral term relating to the style/structure of the physical room. Japanese houses nowadays are more or less westernized. They are built using modern construction techniques and styles but usually there will be one or more rooms that ...


3

You know what 辛【つら】い means in this context, but the interpretation of the first half of the sentence is not correct. "友人に彼女ができる" means "a friend gets a girlfriend". 友人が彼女になる My friend become a girlfriend (of me, or someone else) 彼女から友人に戻る Become from a girlfriend to just a friend (break up) This sentence, as a whole, means "It's a painful thing that my ...


2

As with any mimetic word in Japanese, the meaning is strongly connected to how one would imagine an action would sound like. Considering the context of "wanting to be spoiled or pampered", it can be related to letting go of all muscular control and folding up or lying flat like a sheet of dough (as opposed to something that has bones and joints). If we ...


2

The sense of both verbs is active rather than passive sense. In that case "live or die as they might" could be a closer interpretation. It may refer to the fact that humans barely live longer than a hundred years despite their best efforts, and nothing that they do lasts more than a century (thus the "die as they might" part). As for 「~にしても」, it might make ...


2

As others have noted in the comments, the なる used in old-fashioned text after -na adjectives is derived as a contraction from older form ni aru, and actually doesn't have anything to do with 成{な}る "to become". This なる can be used after any -na adjective to impart a somewhat more formal or poetic feel: 健全{けんぜん}なる身体{しんたい}, 静{しず}かなる田舎{いなか}, 綺麗{きれい}なる着物{きもの}.


2

In the first sentence, you are talking about the desk, specifically, "don't read the desk." The rest of the sentence describes more about the desk (on top of the letter of mine). In the second sentence, the letter is marked as the object, and is the thing that is not to be read.


2

The particle construction ~(な)のに expresses the adversative, i.e. in English (al)though, even though, etc. The の in ~のに and ~なのに is a suffix that functions as a nominalizer. の turns any inflected expression into a noun, and なの does the some for expressions that cannot be inflected. This happens in order to make the attachment of grammatical markers possible ...


2

Pulled partly from 三省堂 大辞林 and paraphrased. 1.a. To like or enjoy taking care of others. 1.b. Wanting to take care of others beyond what is necessary; burdensome to the receiving end. 2. Caretaker*(世話人{せわにん}) * This definition spans various industries, environments, and situations. For example, a caretaker in a home, an organizer for an event, a person ...


2

As a Japanese-speaker, my first reaction upon reading your question was like "Since when is どうやら a verb!?" 「どうやら」 is an adverb ([副詞]{ふくし}) in Japanese even though your source appears to give verbs (to seem, to look like) as its definitions. And because 「どうやら」 is an adverb, it is perfectly natural that it is used together with the auxiliary verb 「らしい」. ...



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