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11

This sentence can technically mean both, but it usually (or almost always) means 1. To mean 2., we normally say 彼は来ないことを知りませんでした。 = He didn't know about the (someone else's) absense. because 彼 is the topic of the whole sentence. In other words, the use of が after 彼 more or less indicates that "彼がこない" is the relative clause which modifies こと.


10

「[口]{くち}」 has MANY meanings. I do not know about bilingual dictionaries, but this usage of 「[口]{くち}」 is fairly common and it should be explained in every monolingual dictionary. See definition 一-4 here: 4 [物事]{ものごと}を[分類]{ぶんるい}したときの、[同]{おな}じ[種類]{しゅるい}に[入]{はい}るものの一つ。また、その[種類]{しゅるい}。たぐい。「彼は相当いける口だ」「甘口」 That means a "(special) group of people or things ...


8

取っ付き (or 取り付き) means "starter", "first (step/impression)", "clue" etc. 大辞林 defines 取っ付き like this: とっつき【取っ付き】 ①物事のやり始め。初手。 「-から失敗する」 ②初めて会った時に受ける感じ。第一印象。 「-の悪い男だ」 ③ある建物・場所などに入る時,一番初めに通る所。一番手前。入り口。「-の部屋」「正門を這入ると,-の大通りの左右に植ゑてある銀杏の並木が眼に付いた/三四郎 漱石」 (FWIW, the third definition seems to be common in middle Japan, but I personally did not know this.) ...


6

Unless you have to do a verb-for-a-verb type of translation, you might consider using phrases such as: "I'm the boss/rulebook (when it comes to ~~)." "I'm second to none (in ~~)" because that is the nuance of 「[譲]{ゆず}れない」 in this context.


5

In this case, 「[久]{ひさ}しい」=「[長]{なが}い」 (temporal > spatial) 「Noun + これ + (を) + 久しゅうする」 means: "to do (noun) for a long time" In real life, however, we mostly use this phrase with a limited number of nouns whose meanings are related to "exclamation" such as 「[感嘆]{かんたん}」、「[慨嘆]{がいたん}」、「[三嘆]{さんたん}」, etc. This is elegant speech, if you are wondering. ...


5

Double contraction is taking place here. 「[忘]{わす}れようったって」= 「忘れようと言ったって」 which means: 「『忘れよう』と言っても」≒ 「『忘れよう』と言ったとしても」 = "Even if I/you/we said 'Let's forget!'" The last part of the sentence 「忘れられない」, of course, means "I/you/we can't (forget)." This construct, which uses the same verb twice, is very common. In its first ...


5

フッたんだ is a colloquial way of saying ふったのだ. ふる: to ditch (someone), to dump (someone). See definition 5 in this entry. It's 振る in kanji, but in this sense, it's usually written in hiragana and sometimes in katakana. ふっ + た: te-form of ふる + た denoting past んだ = のだ. See this. So 私がフッたんだけどさ means "It's me who dumped him, though."


5

To break down: The main topic remains the same throughout the sentence: アメリカやヨーロッパなど6つの国 (lit. "six countries including America and Europe"). As I said elsewhere, this phrase seems a bit odd, but I think the author wanted to say "America and five European countries". And those 6つの国 serves as the subject of the following two verbs: 考えて and 続けていました。 So the ...


5

「[上]{うえ}」, in this context, means the "boss", "leader", etc. 「上を[失]{うしな}えば」 means "if they/you lost their/your boss/leader". Not sure where you get "losing again", really. 「と言えど」 is a conditional/hypothetical expression. And yes, 「[烏合]{うごう}の[集]{しゅう}」 and 「烏合の衆」 mean the same thing. It literally means "(just) a flock of crows", and figuratively means a ...


4

Yes that ハグレ is from the verb はぐれる and means "lone wanderer", "stray one", etc. はぐれ as a noun is definitely rare and is almost never used in daily conversations. But J-RPG fans are somewhat familiar with this word because はぐれメタル (Liquid Metal Slime in English) is one of the most popular monsters in the Dragon Quest franchise. Actually I feel her use of ハグレ ...


4

There are two words that read しょせい in 平仮名 and differently in 漢字. One is 書生, which means (university or college) students, some of whom served as a servant in dignitaries’ houses on the condition that school tuition, minimum living expenses, and petty cash are born by his master. There were many 書生 in pre-World War Japan, and they are featured quite often ...


4

It is a "commercial slang" newly coined from 「爆発的な誕生」(ばくはつてきなたんじょう), which means "explosive birth". It does not really mean "revelation", but there may be contexts where that translation might be valid. As a Japanese-speaker, I could attest to the impactfulness of how 「[爆誕]{ばくたん}」 both looks and sounds.


4

Both roughly mean medium, moderate, average, but: 中位(ちゅうい) is a typical 漢語 and thus used mainly in technical/scientific/formal contexts. 中くらい is colloquial. 中位(ちゅうい) tends to refer to middle position (in a ranking, hierarchy, etc), while 中くらい tends to refer to physical size/intensity/etc. For example, 中位(ちゅうい)の家 is not something we commonly say, but it ...


4

See this デジタル大辞泉's entry: たって[連語] [連語]《格助詞「と」と動詞「いう」の連用形に接続助詞「たって」の付いた「といったって」の音変化》名詞、活用語の終止形、動詞と一部の助動詞の命令形、一部の助詞に付く。上に促音の付いた「ったって」の形をとることが多い。ある事柄を認めるにしても、全面的にではないという気持ちを表す。…といっても。…としても。「登山―、ハイキング程度さ」「来いっ―すぐには行けない」「買うっ―近くに店はないよ」 [補説]打ち解けた話し言葉で用いられる。 So ったって after a noun, a dictionary/imperative form of a verb, or a dictionary form of an adjective ...


4

If I am placed in the situation you describe, I say "初めて会う人がいる or 初対面の人がいる". And I think we don't say "ああ 新しい顔があります!" or "ああ 新しい顔がいます!". It's the direct translation of an English saying. In addition, If the situation is in school, we call them 転入生 and 転校生. If the situation is in a company, we call them 新人.


3

「[口]{くち}に[出]{し}しては[何]{なに}も[言]{い}わない」 「ては」, in this phrase, is just the 「て」 in the te-form of 「出す」 and the "contrast and emphasize" 「は」. In other words, 「口に出しては何も言わない」 is only an emphatic form of 「口に出して何も言わない」. = "to not verbalize one's thought" If you take a close look at both your sentences, you will notice that in each sentence, a person has a ...


3

The two words are very different in actual usage. 中位【ちゅうい】 is basically confined to only as "middle" in high (top)—middle—low (bottom) tripartite system often used in academic papers (except for 中位数 "median"). 中【ちゅう】くらい (位 rarely written in kanji) has no formal definition and is the common word for "(around) middle/average". Synonyms include ...


3

You got the wrong idea about what modifies what :) Look at this part closely: 食べられない物が入った可能性がある If you isolate this part, it becomes clear that it means "inedible things that may have gotten in"(or lit. "a possibility that inedible things got in"). 可能性がある means 可能性(possibility)+がある(exists), so it literally means "a possibility exists". Now let's add ...


3

「[方]{ほう}」 has several different meanings and it seems that you are trying to apply one meaning of it to the 「方」 in this context where it is used for another. To be more specific, you are clearly thinking of the "comaparison 方" as in "A rather than B", are you not? In this context, 「方」 is used to mean "the side" as in doers vs. on-lookers. Tousaka is ...


2

You seem to have gotten から wrong; it denotes a reason here (not "from"). それにコレだったら、あいつが持ってたから参考になる。 (lit.) And as for this, because he had it, it serves as a reference. And it appears to me that this あいつが持っていたコレ refers to something which is not directly mentioned in this excerpt. Perhaps this コレ will be described later, or it has been already ...


2

譲れん is a kind of local dialect of 譲れない, which is prominent in the western part of Japan. As a Kyūshū-ite, I used to use れん, せん, and ん like いけん in boyhood instead of いけない daily and as a matter of course. …れん instead of …れない is used in similar way as …せん instead of …せない 眠れない→眠れん - Can't sleep. 食べられない→食べれん - Can't eat. 喋らない→喋れん - Can't speak. ...


2

There is a good explanation here: 【1】「[同義語]{どうぎご}」は、「あす」と「あした」などのように、[全く]{まったく}[同じ]{おなじ}[意味]{いみ}で[表記]{ひょうき}や[発音]{はつおん}が[異なる]{ことなる}[語]{ご}。 【2】「類義語」「類語」「シノニム」は、「あがる」と「のぼる」、「[遊戯]{ゆうぎ}」と「ゲーム」などのように、意味の似た語をさす。 【3】「同義語」と「類義語」とを区別せずに用いることもある。 (1) 同義語 refers to words that have the exact same meaning, but that have a different spelling or ...


2

As stated above 耳をすます is an idiom that means 'to listen carefully'. If we translate literally there is a kanji for 'ears' - '耳' and a verb 'すます' which means - 'to clear' - so if we combine these it's - 'to clear ears' which is the same as 'to listen carefully'. As for translation of 耳をすませば, it seems that すませば is a form of a verb to include 'if'. So I would ...


2

This sentence means skills aren't taught but you learn them yourself by seeing old hands. This sentence say learning skills oneself by seeing old hands is "steal skills"


2

This usage of 「[以前]{いぜん}」 is actually quite common. We say things like: 「ファッションモデルである以前にひとりの[人間]{にんげん}です。このような[扱]{あつか}いは[許]{ゆる}せません。」 "I am a human being before I am an actress. I refuse to be treated like this." Here, 「以前」 is being used to describe priorities in a given situation rather than a temporal order of things. Even though the focus is ...


2

Let me caveat this answer by saying that I've only been learning for a year and use of は is a mind bending subject. First of all, は does not mean 'be'. If you really think this then you have a serious misunderstanding. In your example the function of 'be' is provided by です. は is the topic or contrast marker. For me the distinction between topic and contrast ...


2

感歎これを久しゅうした = 感歎(wonderment but 感嘆 is common) + これ(感歎のこと)を + 久しゅう(久しく is the 連用形 of adjective 久しい which means "for a long time" and 久しゅう is a dialect of 久しく) + した It means I felt admiration for a long time. However this sentence was used at a long time ago, it is rarely used now.


1

Understanding the subject of this sentence is a lot easier if we unpack it: The sentence 彼{かれ}が来{こ}ないことを知{しり}ませんでした。has an implicit subject, and since it speaks of knowledge, unless it's a narrative, the subject is probably 自分{じぶん}; the self. What has you confused is probably が looking like part of the sentence; it isn't. Splitting the sentence up using ...


1

[受け止める]{うけとめる} can mean to catch or stop a blow, but it can also mean to accept or come to grips with something. Given that [劣勢]{れっせい} means something along the lines of inferiority or an unfavorable/disadvantaged situation, then without further context the best guess I can field is that it means "to accept an unfavorable situation."


1

It's not a real word, obviously. It's probably an abbreviation of 爆発誕生, putting the words explosion and birth together. Bulbapedia takes this literally and translates it as explosive birth. However, I think the 爆発 also could just be making the 誕生 part sound more epic;「幻のポケモンルギア誕生」does not sound as exciting of a movie title.



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