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14

Politeness and Keigo are strongly related, but they are not necessarily the same, neither does one contains all cases of the other. Politeness (丁寧語 teineigo) is a general term that is used for gauging the acceptability of different forms in different situations. Polite forms are expected to be used in formal situations, with most strangers, with peers you ...


13

Like pretty much all pronoun (hell, all politeness-level related) issues in Japanese, there just isn't an absolute answer: it's all down to context and to the nature of your relationship with the listener. The short answer is: a lot less rude than you may have been led to believe I do remember being given very stern warnings (in manuals or language ...


12

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


11

For the younger generations, the rude connotations seem to be disappearing fast. I spent considerable time with Japanese in their '20s over the past two years and the vast majority of males consistently used 俺 to refer to themselves in casual situations. Many of them were far removed from the type of personality that wants to present themselves as rude in ...


9

Boaz already gave a nice explanation of the meaning of おいで. Here is why おいで is written as お出で in kanji (although in many cases it is written in hiragana). In Classical Japanese, there is a verb 出づ (いづ) which means to go outside of some place or to appear. The conjugation type of this verb is 下二段活用, and it would have become 出でる (いでる) in the modern Japanese ...


8

本日 is keigo. You will hear this on a train or airplane, or in a store. But you won't be saying it yourself, unless if you as a beginning student are put in the unlikely position of making an official announcement to someone. 今日 is what you would use in ordinary situations.


8

It is true that a word that means 'play' is used to get the super honorific form (although you seem to have misunderstanding in that you presented the emperor liked playing to die, which does not fit). To get the super honorific form, you can attach あそばす (which is a classical honorific form of the verb 遊ぶ that means 'play' when used as a main verb) after ...


7

敬語 comes from the union of the Kanji 敬 which means "awe, respect, honor, revere" and 語 which means "word, speech, language"; it means "respectful language", it's a form of honorific speech, so here you can start to see the difference. Politeness, in English, apart from being "the practical application of good manners or etiquette", it also refers to some ...


7

It's Kansai dialect. I don't think it's official 敬語 recognized by 文科省. It's 尊敬語. 食べはる ≒ 食べられる, 召し上がる [来]{き}はる ≒ [来]{こ}られる, いらっしゃる 先生が来はった。≒ 先生が来られた, 先生がいらっしゃった I think ~~はる sounds less polite/formal than the standard 尊敬語. I think it comes from なさる (--> なはる --> はる ?)


6

Using ~から like 1万円からお預かりします, which seems to be grammatically incorrect.


6

To answer the title question as a simple yes-no question, the only logical answer would be "Yes, it is." The phrase clearly uses a [敬語]{けいご} twice,「[拝見]{はいけん}」 and 「いたす」, which satisfies the definition of [二重敬語]{にじゅうけいご}. Is the phrase 「拝見いたしました」 "incorrect" then? According to me, no, it is not. Why not? Because it is in such wide use and it just ...


6

Let's look at each of these one-by-one: いらっしゃる is a lexicalized contraction of 入{い}らせらる, which is described in 精選日国† as follows: (動詞「いる(入)」の未然形に、尊敬の助動詞「す」の未然形、同じく「られる(らる)」の付いたもの)「入る」の尊敬語。おはいりになる。 In other words, it was a combination of 入る with the respect auxiliary す and the passive auxiliary らる (in modern Japanese られる). くださる is a lexicalized ...


6

As you probably have already guessed, there is no hard rule about how many times you can use お and ご prefixes in a sentence. We often avoid using too many honorifics, and it is true that there is a general tendency to use honorifics in the final verbs. However, we sometimes use honorifics also in other places. This is different from 二重敬語. For example, ...


5

Another one that is frequently brought up is 「ご注文は以上でよろしかったでしょうか?」, where the "correct" form is 「ご注文は以上でよろしいでしょうか?」. Adding 「~のほう」 is also very common (e.g. 「お車のほうは大丈夫でしたか?」). These are all attempts to soften the language (i.e. to be more polite) (at least according to my theory!). The first example uses past tense, the second uses an indirection by ...


5

Although 本日 will usually be too formal for most situations, there are many cases where you would use it over 今日 (with slightly different nuances). Typically when referring to something tied to the day's date: 本日の魚 (in a restaurant) 本日の会議 (in a professional context) etc.


5

Voting for "simply casual speech" (obviously ;)). Here is one link that shows how using "タメ語" sometimes to seniors can better communication. IMO the writer here is using it to simply mean "casual speech". Online definitions such as these also tend to focus on the description of the nature of the speech. However, the etymology of this term is "speech ...


5

Sure, that's fine. You could say 敬語{けいご}は難{むずか}しいので、タメ語{ご}でしゃべっていただけますか? Although it's a bit funny when a beginner uses the word タメ語 because it's a bit slangy. But I can't think of a better way of saying it. 簡単{かんたん}な日本語{にほんご}でおねがいします should work well too (and has no slangs).


5

I think this shouldn't count as a humble form, but rather as a patronizing form - which is still quite respectful to the recipient, but it's only that usually implies that the speaker is in superior position than the recipient of this form. There are several forms of patronizing requests, and I'm not entirely sure about the nuances of each and when exactly ...


5

Keigo (敬語) is the general term for honorifics in the Japanese language, which can be further classified into three main categories: sonkeigo (尊敬語), respectful language; kenjōgo (謙譲語), humble language; and teineigo (丁寧語), polite language. The former are the so called ‘referent honorifics’ and are used to show respect for the person being talked about. The ...


5

I think the best choice would be: ({先日 / [date] に} [event]で) お目にかかりました I think this would also work: ご挨拶させていただきました These sound a bit awkward to me: お目にかからせていただきました お会いしていただきました お会いさせていただきました


5

A hearty いらっしゃいませ! from the staff or owner brings back happy memories of Japanese restaurant/bar life. いらっしゃい is a perfectly ordinary word of greeting. A person who feels like the 'owner' of the get-together might well shout a いらっしゃいませ especially if alcohol is involved. There is also the possibility of using it ironically or with hostility on a late-comer - ...


5

I disagree that ちと is used more often than ちょっと. Rather than making you sound polite, I think using ちと would just make you sound odd for using such an uncommon word. ちっと on the other hand is used reasonably often, especially in ちっとも. If you'd like a more formal version of ちょっと, I think 少し would serve that purpose well in most situations.


5

That is not the [尊敬]{そんけい} usage of にも for at least three reasons. 1) 尊敬 (= "respect") is already expressed in the words [陛下]{へいか} and the お part of お[考]{かんが}え. 2) 「~~にも考えがある」 is a frequently-used set phrase in which the subject (the ~~ part) can be a first-person pronoun or even a murderer. 3) にも is used for 尊敬 only in highly limited situations, such as ...


4

Polite forms are like this kureru → kuremasu → kudasaimasu morau → moraimasu → itadakimasu So, if you want to use polite form, use kudasaimasu, or itadakimasu depends on situation. or choose the formers if you prefer normal form. Difference between kuremasu and moraimasu is depends on the side of the subject. She gave me an apple (りんごを彼女がくれました) I ...


4

I think in general you are safe using plain form with people in your group who are younger than you and in lower position (usually the same at a Japanese company though). the tricky part is someone who is younger than you in a different dpt. I would just use Teine-go which is what desu/masu can be referred to. In general, you don't need to use keigo in ...


4

ようこそ means welcome but it's mostly used in written context rather than colloquial. いらっしゃいませ actually means "please come in" (literally) but it often carries the meaning of welcome, this is why you hear staff saying that whenever you visit a store, it is mostly colloquial. In a big event you may also hear ようこそ、いらっしゃいませ used together as well.


4

I don't have expertise in this area, but here's the extent of what I've been able to find about it. The main distinction that you'll be looking for is between 謙譲語 and 丁重語. Both serve to elevate the listener, and they overlap quite a bit. The key, however, is that the main use of 謙譲語 shows respect to those who appear in the conversation while 丁重語 expresses ...



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