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17

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


15

Politeness and Keigo are strongly related, but they are not necessarily the same, neither does one contains all cases of the other. Politeness (丁寧語 teineigo) is a general term that is used for gauging the acceptability of different forms in different situations. Polite forms are expected to be used in formal situations, with most strangers, with peers you ...


13

I feel that the expressions you listed include "super-polite" apologies which would be a bit too much in this situation. The professor would be surprised if you really used these heavy expressions. (And it would be more true considering the fact that he knows you're not a native speaker of Japanese.) Among those, 大変失礼いたしました is probably the safest, and you ...


11

Asking someone to speak in plain Japanese is not rude if it's done nicely. However, asking someone to speak in Teineigo seems strange, I would say. Because it sounds like a challenge. Keigo(敬語) is composed of Sonkeigo(尊敬語), Kenjogo(謙譲語) and Teineigo(丁寧語). So, a Teineigo-only conversation sounds like a sorting Keigo quiz or something. How about asking them ...


10

Boaz already gave a nice explanation of the meaning of おいで. Here is why おいで is written as お出で in kanji (although in many cases it is written in hiragana). In Classical Japanese, there is a verb 出づ (いづ) which means to go outside of some place or to appear. The conjugation type of this verb is 下二段活用, and it would have become 出でる (いでる) in the modern Japanese ...


10

本日 is keigo. You will hear this on a train or airplane, or in a store. But you won't be saying it yourself, unless if you as a beginning student are put in the unlikely position of making an official announcement to someone. 今日 is what you would use in ordinary situations.


9

でもリトリートがどんなものかは、However as for what kind of thing the retreat is スケジュールをご覧になって頂くと、if you look at the schedule 一番分かると思いましたので、I thought you would best understand so 未完成ながらも while not complete 送らせて頂きました。I sent However I thought you would best understand what sort of retreat this is if you took a look at the schedule, so I went ahead and sent it though it's ...


9

It's ambiguous whether いらして would be a form of いらしる or いらす, but neither verb exists in the standard language. いらす isn't listed in dictionaries as a word because it's not a separate verb with a full range of forms. It would be more accurate to say that いらし is a reduced form of いらっしゃっ, the 音便形 of いらっしゃる. (The 音便形 is the altered form of the 連用形 that appears ...


8

敬語 comes from the union of the Kanji 敬 which means "awe, respect, honor, revere" and 語 which means "word, speech, language"; it means "respectful language", it's a form of honorific speech, so here you can start to see the difference. Politeness, in English, apart from being "the practical application of good manners or etiquette", it also refers to some ...


8

写真をお届け! I think it's short for 写真をお届けします! or 写真をお届けいたします! "We will deliver a photo/photos to you!" お届けする is the humble form (謙譲語) of 届ける. Examples: ~をご報告 / ご案内 / ご連絡 / ご紹介(いた)します!--> ~をご報告!/ご案内!/ご連絡!/ご紹介! キャンペーン情報をお知らせ(いた)します!--> キャンペーン情報をお知らせ!


8

This looks primarily like a 敬語{けいご} problem, more than a syntax or semantics problem. お使いいただく is 敬語, and 食べる does not match it at all. 食べる is neither 尊敬語 nor 謙譲語. This means that 「ご飯を食べる」 is not even polite when 私 is the one doing the eating. There are many ways to say (あなたが)食べる in 敬語: 召し上がられる お召し上がりになる (*1) お食べになる etc. (私が)食べる in 敬語: いただく ちょうだいする ...


8

It just means "You can use this table" (e.g. a hotel employee explaining to a guest). 「こちらのテーブルをお使いいただけませんか?」 means "Could you use this table (instead)?" (maybe the guest sat at a wrong table).


7

I think this shouldn't count as a humble form, but rather as a patronizing form - which is still quite respectful to the recipient, but it's only that usually implies that the speaker is in superior position than the recipient of this form. There are several forms of patronizing requests, and I'm not entirely sure about the nuances of each and when exactly ...


7

Keigo (敬語) is the general term for honorifics in the Japanese language, which can be further classified into three main categories: sonkeigo (尊敬語), respectful language; kenjōgo (謙譲語), humble language; and teineigo (丁寧語), polite language. The former are the so called ‘referent honorifics’ and are used to show respect for the person being talked about. The ...


7

時間がなかったからパーティーに行きませんでした。 時間がありませんでしたからパーティーに行きませんでした。 While the second one is relatively a bit politer than the first, neither of these are very casual nor polite. If you said these directly to the host of the party, the host would probably feel offended. If you said these to your close friend, he/she would feel that the "~でした" part is unnaturally ...


6

Sure, that's fine. You could say 敬語{けいご}は難{むずか}しいので、タメ語{ご}でしゃべっていただけますか? Although it's a bit funny when a beginner uses the word タメ語 because it's a bit slangy. But I can't think of a better way of saying it. 簡単{かんたん}な日本語{にほんご}でおねがいします should work well too (and has no slangs).


6

Although 本日 will usually be too formal for most situations, there are many cases where you would use it over 今日 (with slightly different nuances). Typically when referring to something tied to the day's date: 本日の魚 (in a restaurant) 本日の会議 (in a professional context) etc.


6

Let's look at each of these one-by-one: いらっしゃる is a lexicalized contraction of 入{い}らせらる, which is described in 精選日国† as follows: (動詞「いる(入)」の未然形に、尊敬の助動詞「す」の未然形、同じく「られる(らる)」の付いたもの)「入る」の尊敬語。おはいりになる。 In other words, it was a combination of 入る with the respect auxiliary す and the passive auxiliary らる (in modern Japanese られる). くださる is a lexicalized ...


6

As you probably have already guessed, there is no hard rule about how many times you can use お and ご prefixes in a sentence. We often avoid using too many honorifics, and it is true that there is a general tendency to use honorifics in the final verbs. However, we sometimes use honorifics also in other places. This is different from 二重敬語. For example, ...


6

I disagree that ちと is used more often than ちょっと. Rather than making you sound polite, I think using ちと would just make you sound odd for using such an uncommon word. ちっと on the other hand is used reasonably often, especially in ちっとも. If you'd like a more formal version of ちょっと, I think 少し would serve that purpose well in most situations.



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