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In modern Japanese these pairs are pronounced exactly the same: ず, づ are pronounced either [dzu] or [zu]. じ, ぢ are pronounced either [dʑi] or [ʑi]. (the first sounding like the English J and the second like the French J, but both are with the middle of the tongue raised to the hard palate, producing what seems like a softer pronunciation). So in short, ...


In reference to Sawa's request for an example, キャンディ is a case of キャ being used to transcribe English ca. I asked my Japanese teacher exactly this question many years ago. The reply was that the vowel in English candy is higher (in phonetic terms) than the low front vowel in RP English cast. The fact that キャ is palatalised raises the vowel and makes it ...


It's a glottal stop, similar to the usage you mentioned (あっ,もうっ). It signifies that the last mora is cut off abruptly. This can imply irritation (なんだよっ "What!") or excitement (大変だっ "It's terrible!"). In print, it's a little like adding an exclamation point to the end of the sentence.


こんばんは is correct. The former is mostly a stylistic/emphatic usage.


こんばんは is correct, according to that page in Japanese. My gut feeling is the same - 今晩は -> こんばんは. That said, a cursory Google of こんばんは yielded 13M hits, whereas こんばんわ yielded 26M.


I'm often driven crazy by the lack of kanji in manga and other written works. I spent so long learning their Asian hieroglyphics, the least they could do is use them! Anyway, I believe the sentence, filled out, is: なにするのだ、このガキは? Where: なにするの -> なにすん (の here makes it a question) だ -> じゃ この -> こん ガキは -> ガキャーーー The ーーー at the end is ...


こんばんわ is cuter. こんにちは is more correct/formal/proper.


It's just an ellipsis of the verb. It happens too with other particles, for example, you have "復興へ!" (towards reconstruction!) here and there in the Tohoku area. I think that it is mostly used in an incentive context, to express "let's all…"


次数 (jisuu) seems to be "degree" in the graph theory sense, not as in angles. I've never heard ちょぼ used for "decimal point", but perhaps I'm ignorant here. The terms I would use are 度 (do) and 点 (ten) respectively. コンマ (comma) is also heard as a decimal point separator (even when the symbol , is not used). Note that, as in English, numbers after a decimal ...


I think おかけで, かつと, and そしで are most plausibly explained as misprints. They don't generally occur, and this novel is too recent (written in 1987) to make comparisons to historical kana orthography. Although it's possible that バック too is a misprint, another explanation seems plausible to me in this case. In Japanese, a phenomenon called rendaku or ...


If we want an authoritative source, we could look at the official terminology used by the Japanese government as set out by the Agency of Cultural Affairs (文化庁) (might be familiar name to some people as their page about 二重敬語 gets referenced here sometimes). They start by saying only to use kanji from 常用漢字表・付表 in the normal form of the character. They go on ...


こんばんは (今晩は) is the one in the dictionary for "Good evening!". I think that こんばんわ has a cuter feeling, maybe a little softer. It's a total guess, but it might be related to the feminine わ at the end of sentences. Actually, this page seems to be saying it's related to 和 (わ - peace) which gives it a nicer feeling.


Your example case is a little strange and without more context, I am not sure about the intent. In general cases, just like Amanda said: it indicates a word being cut-off (or sometimes a very strong exclamation). An interesting aspect is that it seems to work a little different from the equivalent in Western languages, in that it does not actually cut-off ...


Pronunciation-wise, there is no difference in the standard dialect. Some dialects may preserve the distinction between the two sounds, but most of the words that used to be spelled with づ and ぢ are now spelled with ず and じ in the standard language. (In other words, relying on the standard spelling won't tell you when to use "dzu" and "dji" in these dialects, ...


Generally (barring situations like this) all furigana are written as hiragana, regardless of whether it's the onyomi or kunyomi of the character. You could think about it this way: there's nothing grammatically wrong with writing a word like にち in hiragana rather than kanji. ニチ, on the other hand, would be ungrammatical (or at least non-standard). When ...


The pattern is quite clear: digraphs are written as if the 'small' character were full-sized. Hence for example ギョ is written -•-•• •• --: キ + dakuten + ヨ. Thus, write the ッ as ツ.


There's probably too many different reasons why カナ and 漢字 are used / not used in contemporary Japanese. I don't know all the rules, but I will mention two: (1) katakana are used when the 漢字 are considered too hard to write (癌 becomes ガン) and (2) grammatical uses of verbs, i.e. helping verb type uses do not use 漢字. × 出来る  ○ できる × 遊んで見る ○ 遊んでみる × 貰って下さる ○ ...


Here's what my Japanese lecturer told me when I asked her about it: "Usually it is じ for ji sound. However, when ji is used after chi sound in one word with one kanji, ぢ is used, such as, ちぢむ (縮む)、ちぢれる(縮れる). When it is a part of word with two kanji, such as, ちじん (知人 = acquaintance), じ is used." Interesting....


It's not. It's often written in kanji and what you are seeing may just be coincidences. Of course it doesn't have to be, and there are times when it's not, but this doesn't mean that it's "typically" written without kanji. I do not believe that there is any difference in nuance between choosing to use kanji and choosing not to. It's possible that using only ...

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