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18

As @nkjt said in a comment above, this 〜上 is the one meaning, "from the viewpoint/standpoint of 〜". A very common one you'll see in a lot of places is 安全上の注意 ("safety precautions" -- I used to see this under the lids of those fancy toilets). So 金銭上 would mean "from the standpoint of money", or put more simply, "financial". So it would translate as, "...it ...


17

True fluency is rare, and involves more than passing a standardized test. I will refer you to an answer I gave in EL&U.SE which I quoted from my treasured copy of Jack Seward's Japanese in Action. He is talking about Japanese, but I removed all the specific-language references because it's a good measure for fluency in any language. EDIT: I've just added ...


16

Expanding on @TsuyoshiIto's comment above, がる basically turns an イ-adjective (or "words which conjugate like" them, as he states) into a verb. Essentially means "acting this way" or "behaving in such a way": 寒【さむ】がる → To be cold (さむがり: a person who is always cold -- like me); "acting that you are cold" 怖【こわ】がる → To be afraid of something; "behaving ...


12

First and foremost the JLPT does not have a speaking component. This means you may be able to recognise and understand grammar when reading or listening, but you may be unable to actually speak the language with any proficiency. This is my case exactly, I can understand far more than what I can express. Secondly, the entire test is multiple choice. Multiple ...


11

尻をたたく is an idiom, sort of like English "kick in the pants". Consider: My lazy little brother never does any work until someone gives him a good kick in the pants. You wouldn't interpret this as literal brutality, just forceful reminding/urging. Same goes for 尻をたたく, at least in this case, and you can tell because of context: it just seems really ...


10

WWWJDIC writes しいて (adv) as 強いて "by force". In your sentence, しいて食べる is roughly equivalent to 無理して食べる, i.e. overdoing it in some way. A more literal translation might be 食べたくなければしいて食べることないから、食べられるものだけ食べてね。 If you don't want to eat anything, don't force yourself (to eat) and just eat as much as you can/want.


9

It seems you're not interpreting the sentence quite correctly. It should be "As a child I had no way of knowing how my mother felt at that time." [当時]{とうじ}[母]{はは}がどんな[気持]{きも}ちだったのか Would be "how my mother felt at the time." [子]{こ}どもの[私]{わたし}には[知]{し}るべくもないことだった。 I think this is where you might be getting thrown off. 子供の私には is what you need to ...


9

AしてBしませんか sounds to me like "Let's do A and B", whereas AしてからBしませんか sounds to me like "How about doing A before doing B?" Compare: 映画に行って食事しませんか。・・・asking out to the movies and dinner 映画に行ってから食事しませんか。・・・asking out to the movies (going out to dinner has been agreed). OR, suggesting going to the movies BEFORE dinner, rather than AFTER. Likewise, ...


8

This 切{き}る means 下回{したまわ}る, to fall below~~.


8

のに can have several meanings, "despite" being the most common one. But it can also mean "in order to" (~のため)。Here are some examples (taken from here http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=noni-2): パスポートは海外旅行に行くのに必要です。 A passport is necessary to travel abroad. 電子レンジは冷めた料理を温めるのに重宝だ。 A microwave is handy to heat up cold food.


8

SUMMARY Options 3 & 4 both mean "must not" because they are both variations on べきではない tested at JPLT N1 (in fact べからざる is a variation on べからず (see on)). The trick is to understand which best fits the context of the sentence when we apply "usual" JLPT level N1 definitions but even if we do not fully understand the context we can still get the question ...


8

わたしの父は中国語も英語も話せます。 My father can speak both Chinese and English. ~も~も is how you say "both ... and ..." in Japanese. It works with all particles, as も does by itself, i.e. usually replaces は, が, を and follows へ, に, etc. It also works with more than two も's, e.g. わたしの父は中国語も英語もドイツ語も話せます。 My father can speak (all of) Chinese, English and German. ...


8

「って」 is the only correct (and possible) answer here. When someone asks the question 「ねえ, 田中さん(   )どんなひと?」, the asker should basically have no knowledge of Tanaka, correct? That is where the quotative 「って」 comes into place --- "this Tanaka guy", "this guy called --- what was his name, Tanaka?", etc. Using 「が」 is very unnatural (I would call it plain ...


7

Using the Microsoft IME as a guide, generally 延びる seems to be used as "extend" and 伸びる as "grow": 延びる: Extend a conversation Extend a schedule Extend life span Extend a subway into the suburbs 伸びる: Plants/people grow Expand investigations (in relation to the law etc) Grow one's knowledge Grow a market/earnings


7

In additions to what @sawa said, I think it's easy to keep straight if you remember the verb めぐる has the meanings of "going around" or "surrounding". Thus, ~をめぐって/~をめぐり/~をめぐる usually has at least a slight negative meaning (as @sawa stated) usually about some debate, controversy, etc. Here are a couple examples. (I'm going to expand on one of @sawa's ...


7

Just because one of the figurative meanings of "cut" in English is "to reduce in number", doesn't mean that the same applies to 切る in Japanese. That is simply not one of the figurative meanings of 切る. 切るdoes have many figurative meanings, however. One is "fall below" for prices, times, numbers etc. Another is to "lay off, fire". When used in this sense, ...


7

I suspect it's the nominalizer の, making the noun phrase "...温めるの". Then the 'directional/intention' particle に is appended, giving intention towards which the 電子レンジ can be considered 重宝. This can be occasionally tricky to sort out from the "in spite of" usage, but it is an alternate parse to be aware of.


7

死んだつもりになって is a set expression that means to frantically 頑張る (and maybe even with reckless abandon and power). If my understanding is correct, it has a really great flavor. I wouldn't say it's interchangeable with 必死に, but I think it's safe to say they have similar nuances. Sources (girlfriend and Weblio)--> その例文はな。。。もう今からしても遅いかもやけど、死に物狂いになって頑張れば大丈夫かも、です。笑 ...


7

Both Xに関する and Xに関わる have the overlapping meaning when it comes to 'concerning or related to X'. However when you see XがYに関わる or Yに関わるX it is probably better than 関する when X is something that directly affects Y, or is something that Y is dependent upon. Also, there is the nuance that Y is a big or serious thing such as education, peace, life. For example ...


7

In this sentence, 女性ゆえの差別 does not mean “discrimination (against someone) because of a woman,” but it means “discrimination (against someone) because of (that person) being a woman.” That is, it means the fact that some people discriminate against a person because the person is a woman.


7

故{ゆえ} appears to mean many different things depending on the way it's used, but the main definition seems to be "reason". ゆえの: "by reason of (being)", "due to (being)" or "because of (being)". Whether to add or omit "being" can only be determined by context: 女性ゆえの差別 "discrimination by reason of being a woman." 有名人ゆえの苦労 "hardships by reason of ...


7

The ~て form can be used to chain sentences together. That is, any two sentences can be made into one by changing the verb of the first sentence into its ~て form. The result can be translated with the conjunction and and means that the first sentence happens and then the second. In your case きのうはうちにかえりました。何をしましたか。 Yesterday you went home. What did you ...


7

The key to the first one is in the fact that it all comes down to ~ほどじれったいものはない. It is a negative sentence, but it's not negating the meaning of the sentence. If we put it into English it means "There's nothing as frustrating as seeing people give up on things before they start." And that's if we use the book's translation for the rest of it. The point is ...


7

The correct answer should be 1-4-2-3. You have probably seen the common structure "〜〜という + Noun" before. 「と」 is a quotative particle so you have a good choice in #4 with quotation marks to precede it. So, we have a 4-2 for a start. The only choice that starts with a noun is #3, making a 4-2-3 an sure bet already. The only thing you now need to think ...


7

I think you're parsing the sentence wrong. I read it as something like: There was no way that I, as a child, could have known what my mother was feeling back then. I think the one who couldn't have known was 子どもの私, and the thing they couldn't have known was 当時母がどんな気持ちだったのか.


6

範囲 establishes a beginning and end point and is used to show the extent or limit to something. That's why it is most appropriate for the first one, as it establishes the extent of the test (although 17課まで seems like a very difficult test...). 領域 and 分野 are similar and can overlap. For example, 専門領域 and 専門分野 can both be used. However, there is a difference ...


6

尻をぶつ: Means to spank someone as punishment for something which has been done (in the first case because of naughtiness.) 尻をたたく: Means to give someone a good hiding without those connotations (in that case because of laziness.) 打つ: Doesn't work because ぶつ is used for people and 打つ for inanimate things. 殴る: Doesn't work because it's more ...



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