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29

「読むには読んだ」 means 'skimmed' a book. You quickly run through the book, but not intensively. "VるにはVだ" means "I did it (but not intensively / seriously), if I were forced to answer if I did it, or not." For example: 英語を習うには習った、でも上手く喋れない - I learned English, but I cannot speak English well. 聞くには聞いた、でも覚えていない - I heard it, but I cannot recall. 言うには言った、...


20

True fluency is rare, and involves more than passing a standardized test. I will refer you to an answer I gave in EL&U.SE which I quoted from my treasured copy of Jack Seward's Japanese in Action. He is talking about Japanese, but I removed all the specific-language references because it's a good measure for fluency in any language. EDIT: I've just added ...


20

As @nkjt said in a comment above, this 〜上 is the one meaning, "from the viewpoint/standpoint of 〜". A very common one you'll see in a lot of places is 安全上の注意 ("safety precautions" -- I used to see this under the lids of those fancy toilets). So 金銭上 would mean "from the standpoint of money", or put more simply, "financial". So it would translate as, "...it ...


16

Expanding on @TsuyoshiIto's comment above, がる basically turns an イ-adjective (or "words which conjugate like" them, as he states) into a verb. Essentially means "acting this way" or "behaving in such a way": 寒【さむ】がる → To be cold (さむがり: a person who is always cold -- like me); "acting that you are cold" 怖【こわ】がる → To be afraid of something; "behaving ...


14

First and foremost the JLPT does not have a speaking component. This means you may be able to recognise and understand grammar when reading or listening, but you may be unable to actually speak the language with any proficiency. This is my case exactly, I can understand far more than what I can express. Secondly, the entire test is multiple choice. Multiple ...


11

尻をたたく is an idiom, sort of like English "kick in the pants". Consider: My lazy little brother never does any work until someone gives him a good kick in the pants. You wouldn't interpret this as literal brutality, just forceful reminding/urging. Same goes for 尻をたたく, at least in this case, and you can tell because of context: it just seems really ...


10

Both Xに関する and Xに関わる have the overlapping meaning when it comes to 'concerning or related to X'. However when you see XがYに関わる or Yに関わるX it is probably better than 関する when X is something that directly affects Y, or is something that Y is dependent upon. Also, there is the nuance that Y is a big or serious thing such as education, peace, life. For example ...


10

WWWJDIC writes しいて (adv) as 強いて "by force". In your sentence, しいて食べる is roughly equivalent to 無理して食べる, i.e. overdoing it in some way. A more literal translation might be 食べたくなければしいて食べることないから、食べられるものだけ食べてね。 If you don't want to eat anything, don't force yourself (to eat) and just eat as much as you can/want.


9

It seems you're not interpreting the sentence quite correctly. It should be "As a child I had no way of knowing how my mother felt at that time." [当時]{とうじ}[母]{はは}がどんな[気持]{きも}ちだったのか Would be "how my mother felt at the time." [子]{こ}どもの[私]{わたし}には[知]{し}るべくもないことだった。 I think this is where you might be getting thrown off. 子供の私には is what you need to ...


9

「これは」 is an expression which indicates surprise, or something that's giving the speaker pause, along the lines of "Wait, this one...". Anything coming before a 「という」 should be taken as literal exclamation; so rather than 「はという」, the sentence really is: なかなか「これは」というものが見つからない。 Which means "I can't really find anything that makes me go 'This is it.'", or "...


8

尻をぶつ: Means to spank someone as punishment for something which has been done (in the first case because of naughtiness.) 尻をたたく: Means to give someone a good hiding without those connotations (in that case because of laziness.) 打つ: Doesn't work because ぶつ is used for people and 打つ for inanimate things. 殴る: Doesn't work because it's more for ...


8

Using the Microsoft IME as a guide, generally 延びる seems to be used as "extend" and 伸びる as "grow": 延びる: Extend a conversation Extend a schedule Extend life span Extend a subway into the suburbs 伸びる: Plants/people grow Expand investigations (in relation to the law etc) Grow one's knowledge Grow a market/earnings


8

のに can have several meanings, "despite" being the most common one. But it can also mean "in order to" (~のため)。Here are some examples (taken from here http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=noni-2): パスポートは海外旅行に行くのに必要です。 A passport is necessary to travel abroad. 電子レンジは冷めた料理を温めるのに重宝だ。 A microwave is handy to heat up cold food.


8

I suspect it's the nominalizer の, making the noun phrase "...温めるの". Then the 'directional/intention' particle に is appended, giving intention towards which the 電子レンジ can be considered 重宝. This can be occasionally tricky to sort out from the "in spite of" usage, but it is an alternate parse to be aware of.


8

死んだつもりになって is a set expression that means to frantically 頑張る (and maybe even with reckless abandon and power). If my understanding is correct, it has a really great flavor. I wouldn't say it's interchangeable with 必死に, but I think it's safe to say they have similar nuances. Sources (girlfriend and Weblio)--> その例文はな。。。もう今からしても遅いかもやけど、死に物狂いになって頑張れば大丈夫かも、です。笑 (...


8

Just because one of the figurative meanings of "cut" in English is "to reduce in number", doesn't mean that the same applies to 切る in Japanese. That is simply not one of the figurative meanings of 切る. 切るdoes have many figurative meanings, however. One is "fall below" for prices, times, numbers etc. Another is to "lay off, fire". When used in this sense, ...


8

SUMMARY Options 3 & 4 both mean "must not" because they are both variations on べきではない tested at JPLT N1 (in fact べからざる is a variation on べからず (see on)). The trick is to understand which best fits the context of the sentence when we apply "usual" JLPT level N1 definitions but even if we do not fully understand the context we can still get the question ...


8

~ず and ~ない mean essentially the same thing, as they are both negative forms (i.e. they both mean "not"). ず is more of a written or formal style, while ない is spoken or standard. However, the examples in your question actually revolve around ~に and ~と, as it's a grammar usage question. Let's take a look at your examples: 2時間、_____立って話しました。 座【すわ】らずに is ...


8

わたしの父は中国語も英語も話せます。 My father can speak both Chinese and English. ~も~も is how you say "both ... and ..." in Japanese. It works with all particles, as も does by itself, i.e. usually replaces は, が, を and follows へ, に, etc. It also works with more than two も's, e.g. わたしの父は中国語も英語もドイツ語も話せます。 My father can speak (all of) Chinese, English and German. ...


8

掃除する The phrase 掃除する acts like a single verb. It's technically made of two words: the verbal noun 掃除 the verb する But together they act like a single verb. In this case, that verb is transitive, which means it takes a direct object marked by を: 部屋をobject 掃除するverb 'clean the room' The verb is 掃除する, and its direct object is 部屋. 掃除をする When you ...


8

This is an example of how 〜上{じょう} can be suffixed to various kinds of media, similar to how we say “on television” or “on the internet” in English. Note that 〜上 can also be used for books/magazines, even though it would be “in a book/magazine” in English. Examples: テレビ上に映し出される映像 ラジオ上での対談 雑誌上のインタビュー パソコン上に保存してあるファイル パンフレット上に書いてあります etc. Interestingly, ...


8

~ならではの + noun is a set phrase meaning "(noun) only seen in ~", "(noun) unique to ~", "(noun) that can be done only by ~", etc. For example, you can say 渡辺先生ならではの手術, which means "surgery that can only be performed by Dr. Watanabe." (BTW, ならでは is read ならでわ) Now, this sentence is a cleft sentence where the person name is focused. When you say "この難しい手術ができるのは", ...


7

The order of learning words and kanji for Japanese schools and JLPT are completely uncorrelated. Which is to say that the JLPT doesn't attempt to emulate learning as Japanese people do. So while there is some overlap in the sense that both groups generally follow a principle of going more simple to more complex, what a non-native learning Japanese will find ...


7

goo.ne.jp's definition for つもり is: An intention (of doing) Expectation, plans そうなった気持ち which I might translate to "the feeling as if (something) has become that way." I believe some more natural translations for definition 3 might be: As if you think.../As if someone thinks... I think.../I feel as if... Some examples: 死んだつもりになって働きます。 "Work as ...



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