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31

On a basic level, すみません is to apologize for something that you have a "right" to do, such as when passing through a crowd or getting a waiter's attention at a restaurant. ごめんなさい, on the other hand, is for when you have done something inappropriate. So on the way through a crowd, you would say すみません to ask people to let you through, but if you accidentally ...


11

こら is uttered usually when the speaker is scolding or blaming someone. ほら is used to draw someone’s attention to something. They are not interchangeable. I do not know how bad it is to mix them up, especially if other people know that you speak Japanese as a foreign language, but using こら in an inappropriate situation can be rude and may give the ...


8

It sounds like you are looking for the vocative case particle in Japanese. Taken from wikipedia's article on vocative case: In archaic Japanese, or when written as verse, a particle よ and や may be affixed. 少年よ、大志を抱け (Boys, be ambitious, quote by William S. Clark) 神よ、汝の誉れはその御名のごとく (O God, Thy praise is according to Thine name, from ...


7

As @jovanni said: クソ literally means "shit" (feces), as well as being used as an interjection ("Shit!") in essentially the same way it's used in English. しまった is also an interjection but is not vulgar. It's also not as colloquial as クソ. It comes from the word しまう, which means "to finish ...; to do ... completely" (usually with a connotation of reluctance or ...


7

There is no difference in utterances for both words, if you speak those alone. But if you add some words after that, you might need to use "本当に~" to get correct grammar.


5

"ぎゃぼ" is one of the unique interjections used by Noda Megumi (野田恵), the main protagonist of the manga, anime and j-drama "Nodame Cantabile" (のだめカンタービレ) when she is surprised. She also uses "むきゃ" when irritated.


5

すみません and ごめんなさい can be used interchangeably in some cases but there are some differences. すみません: It's a bit more formal than ごめんなさい; In general, it's the one you use when you apologize to a senior or superior people (in this last situation, using "ごめんなさい" might sound childish - see the following point); It's used more by older people than by younger ...


5

I think the following come closest when you realize something you didn't anticipate (or at least you pretend not to have anticipated, e.g. when you are being polite): (あぁ) そっか Of course! I never noticed! when you had confirmed something you did anticipate: やっぱりね Of course! I knew it!


4

Both すみません and ごめんなさい mean sorry. However, there is a slight difference: ごめんなさい is an apologetic sorry. It's used when you've clearly done something WRONG, and is a very straightforward, "I'm sorry". すみません is a subtle sorry. You say this simply because you feel bad, guilty, or even embarrassed. It's more of a "sorry for the inconvenience" or "sorry for the ...


1

えっと is just a sound. Yes, it is like "umm" in English and it is used when you're thinking of what to say, hesitating, or otherwise trying to fill the silence with something before you speak. As Dono mentioned, you can find えっと's general form in the dictionary, so it can be considered a word. There is some discussion of this on the internet here, but this ...


1

I also found out that すみません can be used to express "I am sorry" when doing something wrong like unintentionally stepping on someone's foot. And for expressing "pardon" if we don't understand what the interlocutor says I think we can use 'はい?' with rising intonation. And 'はい?' here is a question like "yes?" Or "I'm sorry?".



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