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43

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


20

Japanese has a curious unwritten rule which states, in essence, that you cannot presume to know the intimate details of a third person's mental state. This is quite an unfamiliar concept in English-land: ○ 私【わたし】はDSが欲【ほ】しいです。 I want a DS. × 息子【むすこ】はDSが欲【ほ】しいです。 My son wants a DS. (OK in English, NG in Japanese) Even if your son has been begging ...


14

'です' does follow i-adjectives. It's purpose is to add politeness. I see no problem with it, but maybe I am missing something. Was there a particular example that was discussed when the person said it is dangerous? The only thing I can think of is that the expression can be made milder by adding the sentence final particle ね, which indicates addresser's ...


13

新しい is a famous example of metathesis. Originally, it was [新]{あら}たし. Over the time, the positions of ら and た have switched, and the new form [新]{あたら}し was created, which evolved into today's standard form 新しい, and today, the old form is preserved only as the na-adjective 新た. Na-adjectives are often used to incorporate Chinese words, and those words generally ...


12

It's a colloquial, contracted form for ~~たく"は"ない, '(you) wouldn't want to~~'. Just as you say あまくみてはいかん to mean あまくみてはいけない.


12

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


11

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


10

As the above answers/comments show, you can divide usage of らしい, みたい and っぽい into two rough categories: ending and thereby modifying entire sentences, or attached to something within the sentence (usually a noun phrase) to create an adjectival phrase. In the below examples, the first of each set is at the end of an entire sentence (Z は女 ○), and the second is ...


9

The -ki ending is the archaic rentaikee (adnominal form). It used to be standardly used in relative clauses/attributive uses of an adjective. The change from -ki to the present -i is called i-ombin. Today, this is used only when the writer wants to use the archaic form for some literary effect such as in literature, lyrics, poems, etc.


8

I want to add a few extra notes to Amanda's answer: There are two different vector we should consider when comparing the coverage of i-adjective conjugation to the verb conjugation (which is obviously richer): Possible inflectional bases. Only verbs have the following bases: Mizenkei (未然形), a.k.a A-forms, which are used for negation: 書かない。 Arguably the ...


8

女っぽい (おんなっぽい) "Womanish". The same nuance you have in English with "childish", maybe a bit derogatory. With make-up, high heels or a cell-phone with a hundredth of key-holders linked to it… Has quite a lot to do with looks. 女らしい (おんならしい) "Feminin". There are two らしい, and we're definitely not discussing the hearsay here. Therefore, this 女らしい means ...


8

Quoting an answer from rintaun for one of my own questions: ~がる is a suffix for representing a third party's apparent emotion. So I would say the major difference between 欲しがる and 欲しい is that while 欲しい is the state of having desire, 欲しがる is the act of expressing it and making it apparent, like making intense face, licking your drooling lips etc. EDIT: ...


8

There are regions where "いいだよ" gets said (http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/1775/mikawa.html), but it's not standard 標準語 Japanese. With adverbs, it probably depends. I don't think you could say "すぐにだ”, but "ときどきだ" sounds OK.


8

Following an い-adjective with です is perfectly acceptable, as in the following examples: あの人はひどいです。 昨日は楽しかったです。 I don't see any vulgar aspect to 美しいです failing contextual clues that could make nearly any description vulgar. Something that may be getting confused in all of this is that while the polite form of an い-adjective is followed by です -- ...


8

Thanks to snailplane's and Dono's links, it seems that the answer is fairly established: 大辞泉 形容詞・形容動詞の語幹など性質・状態を表す語に付いて形容詞をつくり、その意味を強調する 大辞林 性質・状態を表す語(形容詞・形容動詞の語幹など)に付いて形容詞をつくり、程度のはなはだしい意を表す Namely, 〜ない is also a suffix that attaches onto words describing state or quality, turns them into a 形容詞, and emphasizes them.


7

複合形容詞 appears to be the generic term for a compound adjective. http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/metadb/up/kiyo/AN10281005/Hiroshima-IntStudentCenter-kiyo_16_13.pdf - this article covers the various types, and gives many examples. I don't know of any particular lists of these words, but some dictionaries allow you to do a search for words by ending (で終わる) ...


7

Arguing about whether certain words "are" something or other is missing the point in this context, I think. We do not classify words based on some innate, a priori nature that we discern within them. We classify them based on behaviour. And there is no a priori set of standards for that classification either: we have to choose our own. It's completely ...


7

Modern Japanese is very different from archaic Japanese (and some modern formal written Japanese, which is itself rather archaic) in regard to the topic at hand. Initially there were distinct conjugations of verbs and adjectives known as predicative and attributive. Predicative (also called conclusive) was used for the final verb in a sentence, and was ...


7

It means to acknowledge, in the middle of doing something, that it has turned out impossible for one to reach the goal, or that one has lost against an opponent, due to lack of one's own ability or luck, and to give up. Often, but not always, this word is used in the context of a competition, such as swordsman fighting. If it is obvious that you lost, but ...


7

My understanding is that な-adj are actually a completely different type of word that are closer to nouns but are taught as な-Adj. taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_adjectives adjectival verbs 形容詞 keiyōshi adjectival verbs, i-adjectives, adjectives, stative verbs adjectival nouns 形容動詞 keiyōdōshi adjectival nouns, ...


7

Err, I don't agree with your initial statement. I think that generally you are taught that い adjectives are followed by です. I think that it is never dangerous to say "美しいです" and that you should put a です all the time, until you reach enough confidence to know when you may drop it, and just say 美しい. However, い-adj + だ is basically just wrong. There are ...


7

Shogakukan does list the 難有 combination with a reading of ありがた in one place, in the title of a kabuki play: 難有御江戸景清. Poking around online suggests that this is read as ありがたやめぐみのかげきよ. The reversed kanji order would match Chinese syntax better than Japanese, making me wonder if this is simply a kanbun style of spelling. EDIT: Googling a bit more brought up ...


7

nasi and nai are the same word. Like all adjectives, nasi is the conclusive form (終止形), while nai is the attributive form (連体形). More specifically, the attributive ends in naki, but the medial -k- drops out in modern Japanese becoming nai. This is true of all adjectives: atusi -> atuki > atui, takasi -> takaki > takai, muzukasi -> muzukasiki > muzukasii etc. ...


6

This is an interesting topic but I think the question could stand to be a bit more focused. I will throw out an answer in an attempt to inspire other people to dig up better info and perhaps the OP to make the question more specific and answerable. So "what is happening", in general terms to avoid specific theoretical assumptions: In certain kinds of ...


5

I feel that that other answers are tied too much to the traditional analysis of Japanese, which is unsatisfactory from a modern academic point of view. Contrary to what traditional grammar says, i-adjective does not inflect on its own. All there is is the -ku form. This is the only form of i-adjective that is available to syntax. What looks like conjugation ...


5

As others have argued, it's pretty much a question of definition. But it seems obvious that in form, there's overlap between i-adjectives and plain verb-negatives. I'm going to try to be constructive about it by starting a list of forms that exist in either or both of the cases. Please add or comment (or fix my formatting) as you see fit. ○食べない    ○赤い ...


5

First off, you cannot really think of ている as "progressive verb" because it represents more than that. Second, you're right that there are adjectives, but these ている forms are not forms of the adjective but rather forms of their respective verbs, 太る and 悲しむ. ている in the case of 太っている represents a resultant state. 太る on its own means simply "to get fat," so if ...


5

Your example いいな CM is not an adjective modifying a noun. It can be taken as a quoted sentence modifying a noun. It may be more recognizable if it were in quotes like "いいな" CM. The な in いいな is a sentence final particle that adds the first person's subjective feeling to the proposition. There are both the i-adjective 大きい and the (possibly) na-adjective 大きな. ...


5

I believe so. I can't find an explicit affirmation (I provided sources which I've read before, but I could have forgotten or missed such a statement), but for present tense adjectives in the Kyoto-Osaka dialect, it seems the accent falls on the antepenultimate mora (third to last) for trimoraic words or longer, otherwise it falls on the penultimate mora for ...


5

〜き is the classical form of the 連体形 of 形容詞. Sound changes caused き to turn into い for the modern 連体形 (and 終止形). 〜き works exactly like 〜い in modern Japanese, except it can't be at the end of sentences, it can only be in relative clauses: ○高き壁、x壁は高き No, any 形容詞 can end with 〜き in classical (or pseudo-classical) Japanese. いと is: an adverb (副詞), not a prefix ...



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