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68

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


24

Japanese has a curious unwritten rule which states, in essence, that you cannot presume to know the intimate details of a third person's mental state. This is quite an unfamiliar concept in English-land: ○ 私【わたし】はDSが欲【ほ】しいです。 I want a DS. × 息子【むすこ】はDSが欲【ほ】しいです。 My son wants a DS. (OK in English, NG in Japanese) Even if your son has been begging ...


17

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


15

The misunderstanding here is that this isn't the negative conjugation of the word 少{すく}ない. This is the dictionary form. The negative conjugation of 少{すく}ない is 少{すく}なくない.


14

As the above answers/comments show, you can divide usage of らしい, みたい and っぽい into two rough categories: ending and thereby modifying entire sentences, or attached to something within the sentence (usually a noun phrase) to create an adjectival phrase. In the below examples, the first of each set is at the end of an entire sentence (Z は女 ○), and the second is ...


13

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


12

As answered, 少ない is not a negative form of an adjective, but rather already the dictionary form. It is only coincidentally pronounced the same way as the negative form of other い-adjectives. It might be interesting to know that the dictionary entry of すくない also shows alternative kanji (including archaic versions), where the only kana visible after the ...


10

女っぽい (おんなっぽい) "Womanish". The same nuance you have in English with "childish", maybe a bit derogatory. With make-up, high heels or a cell-phone with a hundredth of key-holders linked to it… Has quite a lot to do with looks. 女らしい (おんならしい) "Feminin". There are two らしい, and we're definitely not discussing the hearsay here. Therefore, this 女らしい means "as ...


10

Thanks to snailplane's and Dono's links, it seems that the answer is fairly established: 大辞泉 形容詞・形容動詞の語幹など性質・状態を表す語に付いて形容詞をつくり、その意味を強調する 大辞林 性質・状態を表す語(形容詞・形容動詞の語幹など)に付いて形容詞をつくり、程度のはなはだしい意を表す Namely, 〜ない is also a suffix that attaches onto words describing state or quality, turns them into a 形容詞, and emphasizes them.


9

This isn't simply 美味しい, but 美味しそう. The そう suffix means 'appears to be', and it takes な. When I saw a photo of delicious-looking food, I couldn't help but drool.


8

Quoting an answer from rintaun for one of my own questions: ~がる is a suffix for representing a third party's apparent emotion. So I would say the major difference between 欲しがる and 欲しい is that while 欲しい is the state of having desire, 欲しがる is the act of expressing it and making it apparent, like making intense face, licking your drooling lips etc. EDIT: ...


8

I want to add a few extra notes to Amanda's answer: There are two different vector we should consider when comparing the coverage of i-adjective conjugation to the verb conjugation (which is obviously richer): Possible inflectional bases. Only verbs have the following bases: Mizenkei (未然形), a.k.a A-forms, which are used for negation: 書かない。 Arguably the ...


8

There are regions where "いいだよ" gets said (http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/1775/mikawa.html), but it's not standard 標準語 Japanese. With adverbs, it probably depends. I don't think you could say "すぐにだ”, but "ときどきだ" sounds OK.


8

Arguing about whether certain words "are" something or other is missing the point in this context, I think. We do not classify words based on some innate, a priori nature that we discern within them. We classify them based on behaviour. And there is no a priori set of standards for that classification either: we have to choose our own. It's completely ...


8

Modern Japanese is very different from archaic Japanese (and some modern formal written Japanese, which is itself rather archaic) in regard to the topic at hand. Initially there were distinct conjugations of verbs and adjectives known as predicative and attributive. Predicative (also called conclusive) was used for the final verb in a sentence, and was ...


8

The standard form is おもしろくて仕方ない, where おもしろくて is used as an adjective (not adverb) in the て-form for connecting predicates. (て-form adjective) + 仕方ない or (たい-form verb in て-form) + 仕方ない is a common phrase that means “It's so (adjective)” or “I really want to (verb)”. The nuance of this 仕方ない is “I can't stand it”, but it's not to be taken literally,...


7

My understanding is that な-adj are actually a completely different type of word that are closer to nouns but are taught as な-Adj. taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_adjectives adjectival verbs 形容詞 keiyōshi adjectival verbs, i-adjectives, adjectives, stative verbs adjectival nouns 形容動詞 keiyōdōshi adjectival nouns, na-...


7

Following an い-adjective with です is perfectly acceptable, as in the following examples: あの人はひどいです。 昨日は楽しかったです。 I don't see any vulgar aspect to 美しいです failing contextual clues that could make nearly any description vulgar. Something that may be getting confused in all of this is that while the polite form of an い-adjective is followed by です -- ...


7

複合形容詞 appears to be the generic term for a compound adjective. http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/metadb/up/kiyo/AN10281005/Hiroshima-IntStudentCenter-kiyo_16_13.pdf - this article covers the various types, and gives many examples. I don't know of any particular lists of these words, but some dictionaries allow you to do a search for words by ending (で終わる) ...


7

nasi and nai are the same word. Like all adjectives, nasi is the conclusive form (終止形), while nai is the attributive form (連体形). More specifically, the attributive ends in naki, but the medial -k- drops out in modern Japanese becoming nai. This is true of all adjectives: atusi -> atuki > atui, takasi -> takaki > takai, muzukasi -> muzukasiki > muzukasii etc. ...


7

Shogakukan does list the 難有 combination with a reading of ありがた in one place, in the title of a kabuki play: 難有御江戸景清. Poking around online suggests that this is read as ありがたやめぐみのかげきよ. The reversed kanji order would match Chinese syntax better than Japanese, making me wonder if this is simply a kanbun style of spelling. EDIT: Googling a bit more brought up ...


7

As a general rule, you cannot freely join two arbitrary adjectives like this. You can't say 長赤い nor 赤長い. Words like 細長い are sometimes called 複合形容詞 (compound adjective). Here are some examples: 青白【あおじろ】い (pale), 青【あお】い + 白【しろ】い 赤黒【あかぐろ】い (dark red, bloody), 赤【あか】い + 黒【くろ】い ずる賢【がしこ】い (sly), ずるい + 賢【かしこ】い 暑苦【あつくる】しい (muggy), 暑【あつ】い + 苦【くる】しい 面白【おもしろ】おかしい (...



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