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19

Chris です。 さん is never used (except jokingly perhaps) to refer to oneself. The same goes for other common endings such as くん, ちゃん, さま, 先輩 and 先生. That's because these endings usually convey a kind of relation: for instance, さま conveys respect, くん and ちゃん convey some endearment and while さん conveys very little meaning, it does convey separation. You ...


15

You may use it in emails, especially when you contacting to another company or another department which you never contact before. 関係者各位殿 To whom it may concerned 〇〇社〇〇殿 To (someone) in company   (部署名)殿 To (Department name) Note: I personally don't use it, because I feel that its extreme polite, but when I search mailing list in my company, I ...


14

"-さん" is an honorific suffix added to give respect. It can be used either with males and females, and also with given names and family names, not to your own name, though. It can be even used attached to the name of the occupation and titles. It's ok to use it with people that you are familiar with, but it's kind of mandatory when you are talking to ...


14

ただいま is definitely not the right word for this situation. It is exclusively used when arriving home (typically, when you step inside the house). Sometimes, by extension, it can be used when coming back from a trip and stepping into the airport or the train station of your destination, talking to your loved ones waiting for you (or perhaps over the phone). ...


12

かしこまりました is by far the most formal, and is a humble form (謙遜語). It says that you are inferior to the listener. Most specifically this should be used to interface with customers (hence why wait staff at a restaurant may say it). 承知しました is polite (〜します), but not humble. It is also appropriate to use with customers or superiors. 了解です is also polite in ...


12

「おいかがですか?」("How are you feeling?") should probably be avoided even though some native speakers actually say it. The reason for that, however, is not that there is already 「です」 in there expressing politeness. Rather, it is because the word 「いかが」 is already on the pretty polite and formal side. Adding the honorific 「お」 to it does make it sound overly ...


10

It's used quite normally. My business emails, spam mail, post from the bank or government are all normally addressed to David 様, or whatever exact name they happen to know me by. The same goes for more informal communication using 〜さん or other less honorable honorifics. A certain client of mine is addressing me as DAVID SAN in emails. Non-roman, non-Japanese ...


10

Also, while さん is right for almost all cases, [先]{せん}[生]{せい} should be used for: Doctors, lawyers, politicians, professors, of course teachers, or anyone else that's (a) a direct mentor or (b) has some serious professional qualifications (ala a professor).


10

Since honorifics generally apply when you are interacting directly with that person, they usually aren't used for people that have died (Maybe spiritual mediums do something different because they are supposedly 'interacting directly' with the deceased, but I don't know). Think of great people from Japanese history: 織田信長(おだのぶなが) 徳川家康(とくがわいえやす) ...


10

I don't know of any dictionary or reference book, but since 御 is most often written as お or ご, as appropriate, you could check the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言, http://www.kotonoha.gr.jp/shonagon) as the proper way of "doing Google counting". For 忙しい and 自分 the numbers are お忙しい 217 results ご忙しい 0 results お自分 8 ...


9

Totally unrelated. 山 さん [mountain] is a Chinese word "shān" assimilated in Japanese. さん as a honorific suffix is an old さま undergone some phonetical change. There are many homophones in Japanese besides that.


9

おいかが(ですか) sounds unnatural. いかが(ですか) is already polite so you don't need to add お.


9

お…になる sounds more respectful than …れる to me. In particular, when used to ask for the listener to do something in speech (for example at a restaurant), こちらでお待ちになってください is fine, but こちらで待たれてください sounds impolite (not respectful enough) to me. I do not know whether this difference is counted as “just the tone” or not.


8

I just want to add one point to other nice answers: 了解です is not a proper polite form for this meaning. The proper polite form is 了解しました. Saying 了解です instead of 了解しました is acceptable and many young people use it but decreases the formality level. It shows an attempt to be polite, but at least if it is used by an educated native speaker of Japanese, it may ...


8

It sounds like you are looking for the vocative case particle in Japanese. Taken from wikipedia's article on vocative case: In archaic Japanese, or when written as verse, a particle よ and や may be affixed. 少年よ、大志を抱け (Boys, be ambitious, quote by William S. Clark) 神よ、汝の誉れはその御名のごとく (O God, Thy praise is according to Thine name, from ...


8

As others said already, ただいま is just wrong in this situation: you're not announcing people around you in your house/lab/office that you're back, but just saluting someone who basically knows nothing about you and doesn't share any private space with you. Appropriate greetings for this kind of encounter with your neighbourhood range from こんにちは to いい天気ですね. I ...


8

“Are they used?” and “Are they acceptable?” are different questions. The regular forms such as お借りします and お食べになります are used, but they are less formal than the irregular forms such as 拝借します and 召し上がります. Whether the less formal expressions are acceptable or not depends on how formally you want to speak. By the way, you are confusing grammatical terms ...


8

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


7

If you talk to a teacher, it is always appropriate to use -先生. If you are a student and talk to a teacher, you should always use -先生, even outside the school. If you are a teacher and talk to a fellow teacher, depending on the relation (you are a boss or the other teacher is a boss, you are younger or older etc.), it may be also acceptable to address the ...


7

お馬鹿さん isn't "idiot"; it is softer, more like "silly". Also note the -san suffix. If a little boy named Daisuke is looking for his cap, while actually wearing it, you could say, 今日、大ちゃんは ちょっと お馬鹿さんになってきた、ね! 灯台もと暗し This is soft compared to something abrupt like おまえが馬鹿だよ! There is a need in language to have a soft way to say "silly". This is not to say that ...


7

The general guideline is to use さん whenever you're unsure. As a learner, you cannot really go wrong with it.


7

The reason is fairly simple, but probably not going to going to be as pattern based as you would hope. お[水]{みず} is an example of a segment of Japanese known as [美化語]{びかご}, this is more or less means being more polite by using a nicer sounding word. Some example of this are [食]{た}べる instead of [食]{く}う [美味]{おい}しい instead of [旨]{うま}い お[昼]{ひる} instead of ...


7

Most generally: Words of Chinese (On-yomi) origin take ご Words of Japanese (Kun-yomi) origin take お If I recall correctly, there are also a very few chinese-origin words which take お as they are very commonly used, but I can't think of any of these off the top of my head. Edit: One such example is お電話.


7

様 is more respectful than 殿. The reason Ammy gets it wrong is because 殿 used to be more respectful in the past, but it has changed overtime and 様 has become more respectful. Nowadays, 殿 is used as a fixed expression in some circles. Many companies use it in their e-mails when referring to a coworker, but I would use 様 instead if I were referring to someone ...


7

In language, a process is said to be productive if it can produce new words (or phrases, etc.). For example, in English, you can add un- to lots of words, so we say that un- affixation is a productive process. And in Japanese, affixing go- and o- to words is relatively productive. But when a word can no longer be formed via a productive process in the ...


6

Most mass media refer to the members of the imperial family with one of the honorifics さま, 陛下 (へいか) and 殿下 (でんか). Article 23 of the Imperial House Act regulates that the honorific for the emperor, the empress, the empress dowager and the grand empress dowager is 陛下 and that the honorific for the other members of the imperial family is 殿下, so I guess that ...


6

かしこまる/承知する are used mostly for answering requests from superiours (bosses, clients, etc.). Like, "Yes, I understand what you're asking me to do (and I'll do it)." 分かる just implies you mentally understand. 了解 is not formal as far as I know, and I hear it quite often. I learned it to mean almost like "Roger!" or "copy that".


6

As you probably have already guessed, there is no hard rule about how many times you can use お and ご prefixes in a sentence. We often avoid using too many honorifics, and it is true that there is a general tendency to use honorifics in the final verbs. However, we sometimes use honorifics also in other places. This is different from 二重敬語. For example, ...


6

There are simply too many to mention. Here are some of the more common trios of words presented in the order of [尊敬語]{そんけいご}--[普通語]{ふつうご}--[謙譲語]{けんじょうご}. English: Respectful (your ~~) -- General (a/an ~~) -- Humble (my/our ~~) Shop: [貴店]{きてん}--[店]{みせ}--[当店]{とうてん} School: [貴校]{きこう}--[学校]{がっこう}--[当校]{とうこう} Bank: [貴行]{きこう}--[銀行]{ぎんこう}--[当行]{とうこう} ...



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