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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


9

Yes, it's common to write in that way. Writing いづみ instead of いずみ and 買ひ instead of 買い are a part of the Historical Kana Orthography (歴史的仮名遣). Writing katakana instead of hiragana is considered more formal in old days. See 歴史的仮名遣 and 片仮名 歴史的仮名遣とは ... 明治から第二次世界大戦終結直後までの公文書や学校教育において用いられたものであり、平安時代初期までの発音を反映した表記であると仮想されたものを基点としている。 The Historical Kana ...


9

Any word read in on'yomi in Japanese and using the Sinic hanja reading in Korean is probably ultimately attributable to Middle Chinese, unless evidence can be found of an independent coinage somewhere on the Japanese archipelago or the Korean peninsula. Terms like the ones below are likely borrowings from Middle or later Korean, rather than Chinese. We can ...


9

It's just a coincidence and an example of a false cognate. The etymology is covered here in Japanese. Basically, the term "名" has been around for a pretty long time with the same meaning as 名前. It's thought that the 前 part is an honorific that was added some time later. Early uses of the full word 名前 can be seen in use in relatively modern times. The ...


7

No, it is not. The Japanese use the Chinese Buddhist canon, which is written in classical Chinese. They read the texts using go-on readings throughout. There are of course translations into Japanese, just as there are into English, but they are only meant for study, not for ritual use, and are not considered canonical.


6

全然 began to be taught as only being followed by negatives between 1950 and 1960. As mentioned in in the comments above, とても can actually be, and very often is, used with negatives. And in colloquial Japanese, 全然+non-neg. is currently, and likely always has been, frequently used. In normal Japanese, you are correct in your presumption that double negatives ...


6

There are two different reasons. For native words - the historical pronunciation of Japanese voiced consonants involved prenasalisation (so /d/ was more like [ⁿd]). While in most cases the prenasalisation has been lost, in a few instances the voiced stop was the part that was dropped. This is also the reason for the modern language's [ɡ]~[ŋ] variation. ...


6

In about 2000 years ago, people in Japan were still using clay vessels and had no characters at all, while China had developed a large civilization and their own writing system, kanji. In those days, Japanese and Chinese used completely different languages, with completely different vocabulary, syllables, and grammar. In around the 1st to 4th century, kanji ...


6

Please note that kana is not a true syllabic script anymore. The reason for this is due to /n/. For example, take the word /sinbun/ "newspaper". If you break it into its syllables, it is sin.bun. While accents are determined by syllables in some dialects, kana--as well as Japanese speakers--segment this as si.n.bu.n. The appropriate term for this mora. ...


5

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


4

My answer will be based on the assumption that OP is talking about when 「なんか」 is indeed followed, not preceded, by a noun as s/he so states in the comments (but not in the question). In informal conversation, there actually exists such a structure. "なんか + Noun + みたいな(のような) + Noun" For instance, I have little appetite when I have a fever. Since I do ...


4

The first phonetic spelling of Japanese was using kanji. This system was called man'yōgana, named after the Man'yōshū, an anthology of poems from the Nara period written in this manner. Hiragana and katakana developed as abbreviated forms of these kanji. Although spelling wasn't entirely consistent, and multiple characters were used for individual ...


4

きつね (foxes) are regarded sacred animals in Shintoism, being servants of the god of harvests ([稲荷]{いなり}神). (The sign on the 鳥居 (Shinto archway) says 稲荷大神.) According to legend, a fox's favourite food is 油揚げ (deep-fried tofu slices). Stripes of 油揚げ are what makes きつねうどん きつねうどん. (By the way, 油揚げ can also be sliced up and filled with 酢飯 (sushi rice) and ...


4

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...


3

Just given the archaeological record, any such Tamil claims seem unlikely in the extreme, unless the proponents of this view also intend to make the Tamil the ancestors of the modern Koreans. In terms of material culture, the Yayoi people that became the modern Japanese were pretty clearly from continental Asia, and they entered the Japanese archipelago ...


3

There is a whole class of such nouns that exhibit vowel fronting when used as standalone nouns, and not all of them end in -e or -wa. Among other examples, with in-compound forms followed by standalone: 神: かむ vs. かみ 天: あま vs. あめ (also for 雨) 口: くつ vs. くち 目: ま vs. め 手: た vs. て 月: つく vs. つき 木: こ vs. き One of the reasons for the theory that a certain class ...


3

As others have noted, the modern な particle used with -na adjectives evolved from なる, itself not the verb なる "to become", but instead a contraction of にある "to be in a state". So from newest form to oldest, using your example of きれい, we would have: 綺麗な女 綺麗なる女 綺麗にある女 The -naru form is still used in modern poetry and other contexts to give things a ...


3

The 未然形 isn't just し, there are せ (eg せん, せず, negation) and さ (eg させる, される). Actually if you look at 文語 the 未然形 was actually せ (and the 命令形 just せよ). Finally, if you consider that the 終止形 is す and that you can't form the potential (it is できる instead) while you can for the modern verbs coming from kami-nidan verbs... Probably too brief, but I hope it will ...


3

〔一段活用・二段活用の動詞に推量の助動詞「む」を伴ったもの,例えば,「見む」「受けむ」などは,中世末期までに「みう」「うけう」から「みょう」「うきょう」の形に変‌​化していたが,そこから,動詞未然形「み」「うけ」と助動詞「よう」とが分かれて,助動詞「よう」が生ずるに至った。現代語のように,五段活用の動詞には「う」が,その他の‌​活用の動詞には「よう」が付くというように,接続のしかたを補い合うような用法が一般的になるのは近世江戸語以降のことである〕 ― 大辞林 entry for よう Combinations of monograde (一段) and bigrade (二段) verbs with the conjecture auxiliary -mu, for example ...


3

It is from なる, in a way; but it may not be the one you're thinking of. The なる here is the 連体形 of the former copula なり, which itself derives from に+あり (modern ある). This seems to have been the copula as far back as we have records of. Indeed, this kind of adjective is younger than the copula it uses - these kinds of adjectives do not occur before the ...


3

At some point far in the past (before Old Japanese, at least) these words probably had a single form with a diphthong: 上: *upai 声: *kəpai The diphthong turned into a single vowel differently in different contexts: word-finally it became /e/, and word-medially the /i/ was deleted. (The *p subsequently turned to /ɸ/, which then became /w/ between vowels and ...


3

Thousands of 熟語s in Japanese are created in such a way. 岩石(がんせき) ≒ 岩(いわ) (rock) 河川(かせん) ≒ 川(かわ) (river) 絵画(かいが) ≒ 絵(え) (picture) 自己(じこ) ≒ 己(おのれ) (oneself) 身体(しんたい) ≒ 体(からだ) (body) I don't know the reason. That's how it is. EDIT: Japanese Wikipedia describes the simple reason. One kanji character was not long enough to be distinguishable with each other ...


3

As evidenced by this question on oshiete, Japanese people don't really know either. The asker doesn't understand why there are subtitles being placed on screen, even for when someone like the Prime Minister is saying something in clear Japanese. The answerers agree, that they don't understand why, and put forward their best guesses. Here, too, is a ...


3

Historically there were multiple way to write a word, and this wasn't standardized. For example, some very old documents contain both 直音表記 and ヤ行表記. This was subsequently standardized as 歴史的仮名遣い and then 現代仮名遣い. So, unless you are living in an ancient era you wouldn't use 直音表記.


3

A large part of the reason for so many loanwords in Japanese is that it has a way of picking them up from just about every language it interacts with—much like English, as was mentioned in a comment to the original question. Truth of the matter is, depending on how broadly you want to define it, you could say that every word outside of 大和言葉【やまとことば】 is in ...


3

釋: The English wiktionary may be incorrect or incomplete. I suggest you cross-reference with a kanji dictionary. Here is a screenshot from my electronic dictionary (新漢語林): As you can see, 釋 is marked as a 旧字(体) of 釈. You may also try the glyphwiki: 釋 on glyphwiki. The google android IME tells you this as well when converting しゃく. Luchuan: Here is an ...


3

あらず、is often used in 熟語、or old sayings (like 無きにしもあらず) probably made at least around 50 - 100 years ago.. but I don't know exactly when. Nobody would say あらない・あらず in spoken or written language today. Although people can fully understand it, it's something you only read or hear people citing those old saying. It is not used in day-to-day life. So, ...


3

I will hazard a guess here. If va was written ヷ then the entire v- line would probably have to be written with the w- line for consistency. I think the problem is that except for wa, the members of the w- line are strange. There is no wu. wo is only used for one word and we, wi are not used, meaning people are not as familiar with them. People may have ...


3

I recommend www.alc.co.jp as a starting point for these kinds of questions. It contains a huge library of example sentences and you can search multiple words simultaneously in both English and Japanese. That said, here is my translation of the sentence you gave: 当市は複数の文明ーノルマン文明やギリシャ文明やフランス文明などーが住み着いたことのある歴史を持っています。 The tone got a bit more formal than ...


3

校 isn't the character for "school", it's a character for "school". Here are some of the others: 塾, 学, 學, 宗, 斈, 泮, 黉, 院, 黌, ... Characters are not a neat logical mapping of one picture to one concept. In fact characters are not even Japanese, as I'm sure you know. Characters evolved over thousands of years in China. This means meanings changed, characters ...



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