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Here is a page showing a detailed study on citation history of the kanji: http://atonal.fc2web.com/mr/something/gather/otodo_taito/otodo_taito.html According to it, there is a book from 1981 called 姓氏の語源 'Etymology of Surnames', and it has a short story about the kanji, which goes; One day a young guy showed up at a brokerage office, bought a large amount ...
No. かたじけない is one of the most famous 武士語/サムライ言葉, but it's never used in ordinary conversations today.
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