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The lyrics is written in Classical (Heian-era) Japanese, where the が/の alternation is known to be 180 degree inverted than today, that is, 君が代 is あなたの代 in today's language, so さざれ石の巌となりて → さざれ石が巌となって and 苔の生すまで → 苔が生えるまで. I'm not sure about the origin of the alternation, since the usage is attested in earliest documents. The original text has multiple ...

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