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0

「する」is a generic verb. It's like "do" or "execute". Your second sentence is like saying "I do go to Japan". As you probably already know, if the speaker just want to tell the plan, the speaker says 「私は日本へ行きます。」. If I hear someone says 「私は日本へ行くことにします。」, I feel that the speaker want to tell listener(s) that he/she gave thoughts on something before saying it. ...


2

You can check a Japanese dictionary. They are called 連語 (phrase or idiom) when they are used in these forms: Aとはいえ、B。 Aというものの、B。 “とはいえ” = 助詞 “と” + 助詞 “は” + 已然形 of 動詞 “言う” “というものの” = 助詞 “と” + 連用形 of 動詞 “言う” + 名詞 “もの” + 助詞 “の” They are called 接続詞 (conjunction) when they are used in these forms: A。とはいえ、B。 B。というものの、B。


1

in the ちょうだい(頂戴) you have a familiar relationship, like a mother talking to a child: 座って頂戴/静かにして頂戴. In those case this form is close to the 命令形. See 大辞林. in ごらん(ご覧) is a polite form for -teminasai (~てみなさい) that is also a 命令形. 座ってご覧/静かにしてご覧. See 大辞泉. in ください(下さい) is a polite way to ask someone (a teacher, a boss, older person, any one superior ...


11

Cleft sentences In linguistics, there's something called a cleft sentence. The basic idea is that you split a sentence into two parts in order to focus something:  1a. I met her that day.         (original sentence)   1b. It was her that [I met that day].  (clefted sentence) In this example, we split the sentence into "I met __ that day" and "her". ...


5

alexhatesmil's answer isn't wrong, but I just want to supplement regarding the も and what it's doing. So first, like the above の is a nominalizer. But that means you need something to connect の blocks to the rest of the sentence. You can do so with either は or も so you could say: 育ったのは京都です。 = The place I was raised is Kyoto. The も here replaces は ...


4

の is being used as a nominalizer (something that turns a verb into a noun) in this case, with も meaning "as well as". So, literally, it would read something like "My being born as well as my growing up were in Kyoto." In other words, "I was born and raised in Kyoto."


0

Note: I can't comment yet, so I need to answer, even though I think your attempts are just fine. I think grammatically you have #3 right (with the verbs) anyway. 私たちがその本のことを最初に話した時までに、1週間前からもう読んでいた。 I try to keep it in my head the same was as "would have", which sounds a little wonky in English if you do a literal translation (or always has to me anyway). ...


2

Combination of 連用形 and おいで can have various meanings, depending on the context: [連用形 + ておいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + ていろ」 (stay/keep [verb-ing]) 温かい飲み物を作るから、ちょっとそこで座っておいで。 ← 座っていろ。 これからお父さんがすることを、よく見ておいで。 ← 見ていろ。 今からここで大事な話をするけれども、お前は黙っておいで。 ← 黙っていろ。 [連用形 + ておいで] Casual and mild version of 「連用形 + に行け」 (go and [verb], leave here ...


0

「座っておいで。」 = "Sit there." There are two 「おいで」s: 「お出で」means "come and follow" or "come out". An example is 「お嬢さん、お出でなさい。」which means "Girl(s), come out(show up)." 「お居で」means "stay". Examples are 「あの方は今どちらにお居でですか。」which means "Where is he staying(living)?", and 「客人はまだそちらにおいでですか。」which means "Is the visitor still there?". 「お居で」applies to your case.


1

Its like "come sit here", like the way you would tell a child or someone lower than you (or a peer if you're just speaking "cute" by using diminutives).


8

だ is a conclusive copula, etymologically a contraction of で+ある. It is used sentence-finally (hence the name "conclusive"). The uncontracted form is still available in Modern Japanese, but it's somewhat different in distribution and more formal. だ isn't actually a verb―it cannot stand alone and doesn't inflect like a verb. で+ある isn't a verb either, but it ...


3

「[座]{すわ}っておいで。」 = "Go and sit there." You can say this when both you and the listener (a kid or someone close, not someone older or higher than yourself) know there is a place to sit down nearby and that place has already been talked about between the two parties. It is a casual/friendly imperative. = "Why don't you ~~." おいで here is short for おいでなさい. It ...


3

ちょうだい is another way of making a request. It can be replaced by (or replace) ください. E.g. 早く来てください 早く来てちょうだい 読んでください 読んでちょうだい The relevant entry from 大辞林 (J-J dictionary) is ⑤ 動詞の連用形に助詞「て」の付いた形や,動詞の未然形に「ないで」の付いた形に接続して,補助動詞の命令形のように用いて,親しみの気持ちをこめて相手に求める意を表す。…てください。 「この本を見せて-」 「ここにすわらないで-」 〔女性語や幼児語として用いられることが多い〕 emphasis mine (It also ...


4

"Does ところを always imply the meaning of のに in the meaning of "although"?" No, it does not. 「ところを」 has two different meanings/usages. Usage #1: 「だが」 or 「のに」 as you said. 「このシャツは、いつもは3,000[円]{えん}のところを、[今日]{きょう}は1,980円で[売]{う}っている。」 = "Although they usually sell this shirt for 3,000 yen, they are selling it for 1,980 yen today." ...


0

Like Oskar Lindberg perhaps, I think that the use of けれども is not entirely "neutral" in the above examples. The phrase following the けれども is not negating truth value of the phrase proceeding it but I think it is negating (in the sense of changing) the objectivity-subjectivity-type/ discourse-field/ brain-side(?!) (I am failing to find a proper expression) ...


2

They are different. AにXをみる means you find abstract things against something. For examples, その映画に人生の意味を見た (I found sense of the life in/out of the movie), その人にイエスを見た (I found Jesus in him/her) etc.


8

Both 「[映画]{えいが}で[見]{み}る」 and 「映画に見る」 are correct and natural phrases but they have different meanings. 「映画で見る」 is the simpler and more often used of the two. If you saw a certain thing, place, actor, etc. in a movie, you 映画で those things を見た. Those tangible objects just physically appeared in the movie and you saw them. 「映画に見る」 is less often used and ...


4

With this class of perception verbs, the thing you are perceiving is the direct object. We mark it as a direct object using the accusative case particle を: 映画【えいが】を見ました【みました】 Other verbs in this class include 聞く【きく】 'hear' and 嗅ぐ【かぐ】 'smell'. We would make it a direct object in English, too, by the way: I saw a movie. Except that in English, ...


4

As I mentioned before, those examples that I gave you, and that you're using for your question here, are from the Japanese grammar book Particles Plus by Atsuko Kawashima (Harcourt, Tokyo 1992). About your first alternative translation: The dog is barking, but someone is outside, right? In the original Japanese sentence 犬がほえている is merely a ...


0

From the point of view of Japanese as 国語 (a national language), it's 連用形 of 形容動詞 + する. But from the point of view of "Japanese as a second/foreign language", I think it's mostly considered to be 辞書形 of な形容詞 + にする. 形容動詞 are very controversial. Most Japanese as a second/foreign language textbooks call them な形容詞 (na-adjectives), but Japanese: The Spoken ...


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


1

I don't think categorically ruling that "complexity" is always bad would be wise. A lot of rather sophisticated constructions are perfectly natural to a native speaker, and thus may be preferable over simplified options. Now, in the case of your sentence: I had learned that Japanese people [...] ... I'd say that depending somewhat on the context, ...


3

In some cases, you can try 連体形 or 助詞 “の”. 1.) 私が好きな動物である犬が… 2.) あなたが昨日話したジョンが… 3.) とても人気がある歌手のブライアンが… However, this makes a complicated sentence. Usually, splitting into two sentences is preferred. 大量のヨウ素を…。それは一日13 mgにもなる。


1

In modern Japanese, 仮定形 is used almost exclusively to make a conditional. The definition in a Japanese dictionary 大辞林 suggests that 仮定形 is alway followed by “ば”. One apparent exception is “すれども” but this is 已然形 + “ども”. 已然形 is used in classical Japanese and means that something has been done. 已然形 is an ancestor of 仮定形 but their meaning is different.


11

I'm afraid that English and Japanese lexical categories don't match up quite that well. これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. That works. In Japanese, these are called 指示代名詞【しじだいめいし】 'demonstrative pronouns'. Keep in mind, though, that grammatically they're really more like English nouns―they permit attributive modification, which English pronouns ...


-1

ここ, そこ and あそこ are pronouns indicating a position.


4

They actually do indicate compulsion: 知{し}らせる: Literally, "to make known", or in other words; "to inform/notify". 桜は暖かくなってきたことを知らせるように咲きます。 "The cherry blossoms bloom as if to inform [their viewers] that it has become warmer (or more freely: that warmer days have arrived)." 咲{さ}かせる: "to make bloom" 秋の終わりから花を咲かせはじめ...... "To make/force/let ...


-2

In this case つく means you attach something to something and do not remove it (for a while). My dictionary says in this case it is written without kanji, however Google search reveals many usages of 付く in this role which means practically same - "put something somewhere".


2

Yes, in fact, this is why they are called "Godan" 五段 ("five class") and "Ichidan" 一段 ("one class"). The five polite verbs can be considered an exception to your rule. They are considered "godan" but are conjugated a little differently. いらっしゃる → いらっしゃいます (Not いらっしゃります) おっしゃる → おっしゃいます なさる → なさいます くださる → くださいます ござる → ございます


3

There are a number of ways to express this. Roughly in the order of informality, those include: 「~~すれば + Potential form of verb。」 「~~すれば + Verb in dictionary form + ことができる。」 「~~することで + Noun (or "Verb + こと") + が[可能]{かのう}になる。」 「~~することにより (or によって) + Noun (or "Verb + こと") + が可能になる。」 「~~することにより (or によって) + Noun + が[達成]{たっせい}できる。」 To use one of your ...


-1

Strictly speaking the answer is no. Just the -ず ending by itself won't create anything "adverb-like". That's why it takes the "ni" particle (-ずに), to become adverb-like (just like 自由 jiyuu is freedom and 自由に jiyuu ni is freely). When you have a -ず ending you have a 連用形 ren'youkei, also known as ます形. It follows a negative base (未然形 mizenkei), but the ...


4

The connective particle -te is derived from the continuative form of the lower bigrade perfective auxiliary -tu. Syntactic evolution The distribution of the auxiliary -tu (including its continuative form -te) was that it appeared after the continuative form of verbs (i.e., it did not appear after -ku in adjectives), which is a restriction all auxiliaries ...


3

予定が済む means something like "the agenda is clear", where "clear" is intransitive, here. 済ませる is indeed the causative form of 済む (and is transitive). So 済ませる is something like "to finish" (compare the (transitive) "to clear"). ~ようとする is maybe "to try to ...". The main point, however, is that 楽{らく} doesn't really mean "fun", but "comfortable/easy". The ...


-2

You over-complicate your question by putting "accomplish" in there. You should instead be trying to learn, "if this, then that". 頑張って勉強すると卒業することができます "If I persevere and study hard, I'll be able to graduate" You can use と as a conditional linking the former statement to the latter statement, in a fashion that the former will be IF and the latter will be ...


1

I don't think there is a good literal translation of this construction into Japanese. Here are some related expressions that might help. 「一所懸命{いっしょけんめい}勉強{べんきょう}したら、いい成績{せいせき}を取れる{とれる}。」 "If I study really hard, I can get good grades." 「一所懸命勉強して、いい成績を取る。」 "I'll study really hard and get good grades." 「いい成績を取れるように、一所懸命勉強する。」 "I'll study ...


2

Yes. However, something to be careful of is 〜ず vs. 〜ずに: お役に立てず、申し訳ありません。 "We apologize for being unable to serve you." ✗お役に立てずに、申し訳ありません。 お礼も言わず(に)食べた。 "He ate without saying his thanks." I think you could say that 〜ず allows for exactly what なくて supports plus adverbial modification, while 〜ずに only allows for adverbial modification.


5

Yes, there was ara-nai. Quote from 『おあむ物語』 (c. 1665): くびにおはぐろを付て。おじやる。それはなぜなりや。むかしは。おはぐろ首は。よき人とて。賞翫した。それ故。しら歯の首は。おはぐろ付て給はれと。たのまれて。おじやつたが。くびもこはいものでは。あらない。その首どもの血くさき中に。寝たことでおじやつた。 From 『雑兵物語 おあむ物語』, page 134, 岩波書店 ISBN4-00-302451-6. While quite short, for those interested in language history, I'd like to point out that this text is particularly rich in ...


1

My dictionary says あす is more polite than あした. And 明日 has an another reading like みょうにち and this is more polite あす. I know みょうにち is polite but I didn't know あす is more polite than あした. I think Japanese who know this difference isn't many.


3

「[今]{いま}、[仕事]{しごと}を[片付]{かたづ}けてしまえば、[明日]{あす}は[楽]{らく}ができるというわけです。」 In this context, 「わけ」 is used to say that as a result of Action A, Situation B will naturally occur. Action A: 今、仕事を片付けてしまう (finish one's work now) Situation B: 明日は楽ができる (one could relax a bit tomorrow)


4

The difference between "verb + しようとする" and "verb + してみる" has been already answered. In short, the former is "try to do something," and the latter is "(actually) try doing something." ~を試す is used with various kinds of nouns. I don't know how to combine this with another verb (although you can say "試しに + verb + してみる"). It means "test/check" how something ...


0

That expression is something like "the point of the scheme is ...", and it's still a kind of reason for what they are doing.


7

There is a fairly big difference in meaning between 「~~てみる」 and 「~~ようとする」 that makes them virtually noninterchangeable for the better speakers/writers. 「~~てみる」 means "to try something out often for the first time (to find out how it is, how you like it, etc.)". 「~~ようとする」 means "to attempt to ~~ to achieve some kind of goal (however insignificant it may ...


1

verb~て+みる: "give {gerund/pronoun} a try/shot." / "try {gerund/pronoun} out." This construction can be used when the subject has no idea how engaging in the activity will turn out (e.g., because it's his of her first time doing it), but decides to give it a shot anyway. It has a bit of a non-committal feel to it, and the emphasis is on trying something out, ...


4

That's a good question. I think that 滅多に doesn't modify ある by itself; I also think it doesn't directly modify ではない. Rather, I think that, at least for 滅多に, the whole phrase あるものではない pretends to be a negative of ある.


4

「緊張しすぎる」=「緊張」 + 「する」 +「すぎる」 In order to combine the two verbs する and すぎる, you need to change the first one する into its [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form). The 連用形 of the verb 「する」 is 「し」. Since 「する」 is the most often used verb in the language, 「し」 is very important and you will keep seeing it from now on. 緊張しすぎる = to get too nervous [飲]{の}みすぎる = to ...


4

緊張し is 連用形(ますform) of the verb "緊張する".


4

[緊張]{きんちょう} by itself is a noun. The English word "nervous" is an adjective. To say the sentence in English, you would say "I was too nervous" or "I am too nervous." That makes the English construction a be-verb construction to apply the adjective to the subject. To accomplish the same sort of thing -- to apply 緊張 to a subject in Japanese, you say ...


0

These are all adverbs. 全然ある is considered bad form today, although it was used in Meiji times. 全然気にしないでください。 As the comment to this answer notes, you can use ほとんど in a positive text with ratios, for example ほとんど半分. When なかなか is used next to a verb it is always in a negative context. However, it can be used as a positive word to modify an adjective, for ...


3

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (= attributive form) of the Clasical auxiliary verb 「き」, which expresses "past tense". As in your examples, it is sometimes used in the Modern context when the author wants it to sound "literary" and/or "dramatic". Today, it is used almost exclusively in fiction. 「[背負]{せお}いし[者]{もの}」=「背負った者」 「かつて[来]{き}たりし者」=「かつて来た者」 ...


1

As user4092 said, it is the verb that matters. I will break down each sentence by explaining the verb. Sentences 料理をしているところに電話がかかってきて困った。 電話がかかってくる accepts a number of things marked by に, and one of them is the time (compare: 「仕事中に電話がかかってきた。」). Thus, 料理をしているところ in this first sentence is functioning as a time. デートをしているところを友だちに見られてしまった。 ...



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