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3

If you don't care about who is doing the thinking, then why not make it much more natural and use the passive voice? ボブさんによれば、株価が高いと思われているそうだ。 According to Bob, the stock price is thought to be high. Also do you mean: 株【かぶ】価【か】 stock price or 物価【ぶっか】 cost of living? If you want to omit the subject you do need context I'm afraid. A: ...


9

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


1

The meaning of て行く is that something is happening now and continuing into the future. So すすんで行く would be an advance that has begun and will continue into the future, or a continual state of advancement. And with a quick check on Google Translate, さいて行く is "beginning to bloom". So your definition of "getting into the state of doing X" would be applicable in ...


1

Your final question is different from the one in the title. First, ~たち is not built-in. The noun 友 can appear on its own. See here for more information. Therefore, the answer to your last question is no. I want to mention though that ~たち, or suffixes such as ~ら, ~ども, etc. do not mark the plural in the strict sense, but rather an associative. An ...


0

They all translate to and in English. But, in Japanese, they are translated differently depending on how it is used. および(及び) This is used when listing items. E.g. A, B, and C translates to A、BおよびC ならびに(並びに) This is used when listing items that contain a subset of items. Let's say there are 3 groups A, B, and C. Also, let's say each group has another ...


-2

と思っている talks about the current state of things: "is thinking" と思う talks about what will happen or what always happens. cf. ご飯を食べている I am eating. ご飯を食べる I eat (habitually). I will eat. Does that help show why it sounds weird to use 思う in this kind of situation?


4

There are a few verbs that do this. It's not just 思う but also 考える. I tried coming up with an English parallel but after a few goes decided that they don't work. The source difference as I see it is that the Japanese language has a stricter account of philosophy of mind that works from the idea that we don't have access to the thoughts and feelings of ...


5

Side question first, so I will not forget. Whenever you see a 「上」 or 「下」 in an explanation in a Japanese dictionary, "Think Vertical" as in "vertical writing" and take the words 「上」 and 「下」 literally. 「上」 refers to what precedes something and 「下」, what folllows. Thus, 「上に来る副詞」 refers to 「よく」 and 「どうして」, respectively, in the example expressions. On to ...


6

First, I must say that "it has been decided that ~~" is a highly overrated translation of 「~~ことになる」 among J-learners. Truth is that that is not what it means even half the time. 「あすで1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。」 means "It will have ended up raining a whole week." It has already been raining for 6 straight days now and the weather forecast says that it will rain ...


1

1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。 is totally fine. "it will end up raining for a week" 1週間雨が降りつづくようになる。 is very strange. "it will come to be that it rains for a week" 1週間雨が降りつづくようだ。 is fine. "it appears that it will rain for a week" Using user1713450's pizza example: ピザを食べることにした "I decided to eat pizza" ピザを食べることになった "I ended up eating pizza" ピザを食べるようになった "I came to eat ...


-3

Where did you see the first example? It doesn’t make sense to me unless you believe in the Greek gods and are saying it has been decided (by them) that it will continue to rain. The verb that precedes ことになる must be one that is capable of being decided and done. Natural phenomena out of the hands of human beings, cannot ことになる. You are likely getting ...


3

There is virtually no difference in meaning but there is a slight difference in nuance, therefore, in actual usage. Using 「どのような批判があろう + が」 could make you sound a bit more defensive and/or excited about your own opinion being presented than when using 「どのような批判があろう + と」. The latter would help show your composure as an author better than the former. Without ...


4

A は B ではないか is asking "isn't A (=) B?", and here used as a (stylized) rhetorical question, i.e. meaning "I think that A is B". Since A と思いますが is "I think that A, but ...", we are also dealing with a an ellipsis (assuming you're quoting the whole sentence). In any case, both figures of speech are very commonly used in Japanese. Unfortunate for a ...


1

Yes, all the reasoning above is just mere speculation. Now is the why (I'm not sure to use the good terms so feel free to edit if you think it is necessary). The major difference between だ and である is that である is a real verb (ie. it is not defective) but だ is not. So there is no restriction in the use of the 連体形 of である but according to 助動詞_(国文法) (wikipedia) ...


3

A bare ます-stem can be used to join sentences together, much like the て-form. Another valid way to render this sentence would be as follows: オオカミのことばに従って、森に行った。 In both cases it translates to "In accordance with the wolf's words, [I] went to the woods."


1

I really don't quite understand which part of the fantastic answer on the linked question you don't understand. I'll try to add some notes. である is for all practical purposes a copula (like だ). This means in particular that your sentence structure will consist of a topic/subject and a predicating noun phrase. The topics/subject may be marked by は/が/も; the ...


6

Generally speaking, ~として is used for "as a". You use a noun before として. For example: As a friend... 友{とも}だちとして...


2

In a basic sentence, 自分 is a reflexive pronoun which refers back to a subject. It can often be translated with English reflexives like himself or herself. It doesn't necessarily point to the speaker. However, in this case we have 自分 in indirect speech, which is a little different: ルーカスさんiは、[ 自分iをファーストネームで呼んでもらいたい ]-と 言うけれども、三年も年上の人なので、どうも「トム」とは呼びにくい。 ...


2

Although it isn't a great analogy, I sometimes think of 自分 as the Japanese counterpart to the "reflexive" (just because 自分を sometimes translates to "himself" or "herself"). That doesn't really work here, but in any case, 自分 still points to ルーカスさん, even though he isn't the speaker: 自分を ファーストネームで呼んでもらいたい he wants to get people to call him by the first ...


2

It may help to understand the nature of: the は particle (topic marker), the nature of the が particle (subject marker), and the fact that 好き is an adjective, not a verb. Japanese is what is known as a topic prominent language. In English, no distinction is made between the topic of a sentence and the subject. In Japanese, however, they serve two different ...


5

Sentence 1) is easy — it clearly means "I like cats." Sentence 2) is more difficult, and has already generated complicated discussions about grammar elsewhere on this site. It's an unusual-looking sentence, and it's certainly not a normal way of saying "Cats like me." It could mean "I like cats." and I think that this is the most natural ...


-2

で indicates the location of an action, while を indicates the object of an action. However, some verbs such as 散歩【さんぽ】する, 走る【はしる】, 歩く【あるく】, etc. can also be used in this way, meaning that both are correct.


5

[飲]{の}み[干]{ほ}す, [燃]{も}えゆく are compound verbs(複合動詞): 飲む + 干す >> 飲み干す, 燃える + 行く >> 燃えゆく 例: 死にゆく、食べ続ける、話し終える、飛び立つ、言い出す... ← continuative form(連用形) verb + verb Compare: 燃えてゆく(燃えていく) is made of the verb 燃える + the subsidiary verb(補助動詞) ゆく/いく(行く). 例: 死んでいく、食べてもらう、話してくれる、飛んでくる、言ってしまう... ← te-form verb + subsidiary verb


6

There is 「こと」 that actually means "thing(s)" and there is 「こと」 that does not mean "thing(s)". 「ふたつのことをかんがえています。」 means "I am thinking of two things." The こと clearely means "thing". In the following sentence, however, こと does not really mean that. 「すみこさんのことがすきです。」 = "I like/love Sumiko." One could possibly translate it as "I like the things ...


6

Particles have multiple uses or meanings. が can be used to mark the subject. However 好き【すき】 is an adjective not a verb. In this case が marks the target of 好き【すき】 which is cats. 1) 私は猫が好き 2) 猫は私が好き The pattern of these sentences is: Topic は target of adjective が adjective I(topic) like(adjective) cats(target of adjective). Cats(topic) ...


2

It makes sense if the つや in 色つや is 2 なめらかで張りがあり美しいこと。「若々しい―のある声」「肌に―がある」 and not 1 物の表面から出るしっとりとした光。光沢。「宝石を磨いて―を出す」 from http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/leaf/jn2/148376/m0u/%E3%81%A4%E3%82%84/


3

こと is an abstract thing. In English when you say something like "I don't know much about XX." or "I know a bit about XX." The about XX part is XXのこと. 


0

I'm not fluent with Japanese and can't read Kanji, but I think となる means "to become" or "to change" into a final state. This site might help give you a better explanation - It focuses on the differences of になる and となる, but also gives it's meaning. この世界が心つなぐ鍵となる - I'm sorry I can't translate this but in Romaji it would look like this > kono sekai kokoro ...


3

To answer the title question, yes, it is. The particle 「も」 cannot mark a word anywhere else but right in front of it. The main thing that is preventing both OP and the first "answerer" from understanding and appreciating this sentence seems to be their belief that 「色」 always means "color". Look it up in a good dictionary -- a monolingual one, of course. ...


6

In basically all daily conversations, the only natural way to express the numbers and items is: Name of item + (particle) + number + counter + verb phrase Natural: 「ビッグマックをふたつ[食]{た}べた。」 = "I ate two Big Macs." Natural: 「みそラーメン(を)よっつ[下]{くだ}さい。」 = "Four miso-ramens, please!" Unnatural though grammatical: 「ふたつのビッグマックを食べた。」 & 「よっつのみそラーメンを下さい。」 The ...


0

は is normally used a subject marker, but its also used for emphasis by slightly subverting its standard usage. When used this way, it's usually to show contrast the object with some other object. In your example sentence (その覚悟はしてました), the speaker indicates that they're prepared for the eventuality that their conversation partner just mentioned, but maybe ...


7

There are three particles in Japanese which are typically spelled differently than they're pronounced: は (pronounced wa rather than ha) を (pronounced o rather than wo) へ (pronounced e rather than he) Although you're hearing it correctly, in this case it is actually the particle を, marking a direct object: (わたしは)ケーキを たべたい This particle comes ...


4

First, it looks like you are somehow seeing a word that is simply not there -- 「[当]{あ}たり」 --, which is preventing you from understanding this sentence even without the word 「[虚]{うつ}ろ」. The word that you should be seeing instead is 「[辺]{あた}り」. 「このあたり」 means "around here/there". Unlike 当たり、辺り is very often written in kana. (For the pronunciation-conscious ...


1

Logically speaking is cause-effect, but I think it's actually a sequential action. At least looking at a literal translation. - You sacrifice something, and it's on that (sacrifice) that peace is founded(/arises).


3

Its difficult to give a full translation of the sentence with the limited context you have given (and I was not sure what to make of your other notes) but, regarding the てーform: It links phrases. The link is usually to describe one of the following three things: (1) "Cause and effect"*, eg: お腹が痛くて、歩けない (2) Sequential actions, eg: 図書館へ行って、勉強した ...


3

しかし、平和はただではありません。何かを犠牲にして、その上で、平和は成り立っている。 昔は自分の可愛い子供達でした。 In parts, "しかし、平和はただではありません。" However, peace is not free. (natural English order: "Peace, however, is not free") Part 2: "何かを犠牲にして" "Something becomes a sacrifice" or "something is used as a sacrifice" Part 3: "その上で、平和は成り立っている。" "Through this, peace is made" Part 4: "昔は自分の可愛い子供達でした。" "In ...


3

Different types of ~そう I think it's best to consider adjective + そう and verb + そう separately, because they have slightly different meanings. In particular, with verbs, そう has the sense of something close to happening or about to happen in the near future, but with adjectives... not really. 雨が降りそうだ。 It looks like it's about to rain. (near future) ...


1

1. natural / acceptable 僕が 君を 好きだと思うのは そういうところだ 僕が 君を 好きに思うのは そういうところだ 僕が 君を 好きなのは そういうところだ 僕は 君の ~が 好きだ 僕は 君の ~なところが 好きだ 僕は 君の ~を 好きだと思う 僕が 好きなところは 君の ~だ not possible 僕が 君の 好きな/好きだと思う のは、そういうところだ (君「の」is not possible) 2. for 「思う」 ○「感じる」 △「考える」 natural この文の中で あなたが おかしいと 思うところは? あなたが この文の中で おかしいと 思うところは? not in dayly use ...


2

Your translation is correct. 「そう」is for positive sentence, 「そうに」is for negative sentence. 「そう」/「そうに」also have some meaning of "in the future". I also understand. 僕にもわかります 僕にもわかる I understand... maybe. 僕にもわかりそうです 僕にもわかりそう I don't understand. 僕にはわかりません 僕にはわからない I don't understand, ether. 僕にもわかりません 僕にもわからない It's hard to ...


1

○ (~が) 反抗的な態度に見える (~が) 反抗的な態度に映る (~を) 反抗的な態度として受け止める (~が) 反抗的な態度として受け止られる(受け止められる) (~を) 反抗的な態度と捉える x 反抗的な態度として見える(映る) 反抗的な態度に受け止める 「に」and「として」have nearly same meaning but 「に」is correct here.


9

Generally speaking:   〜と links to a following verb (or other predicate)   〜との links to a following noun (or noun equivalent) That's generally what の does—indicates a relationship to a following noun:  海へ 行く  The particle へ links 海 to the following verb 行く  海への道   The particle の links 海へ to the following noun 道 In English, we use word order ...


6

「公園に行ったならば、何しようか?」 is unnatural, and the main reason is that 「~しよう」 means "Let's ~", referring to something someone is actually going to do right now or in the near future. Instead, expressions like 「何をしますか?」 or 「何をして/どうやって過ごしますか?」 will do. Basically this type of question is asked without any if-clause: いつも公園では何をして過ごしますか? ふだん公園ですることは何ですか? When you ...


2

English uses specific verb forms (past subjunctive / would) to express unlikely/counterfactual conditionals. Japanese doesn't have this feature, so if you want to stress the unlikeliness, you need to express it in other ways, for example with adverbials like もし or 仮に 仮に公園に行ったならば、何する? What would you do if you went to the park? 仮に公園に行ったならば、何した? What ...


2

The どんな here takes a に because it's being used adverbially to modify adjectives 常識的 and 正当. The bit up through the も is parseable as one big noun phrase, which could be diagrammed as: [NP [ADV どんなに [ADJP [ADJ 常識的] [CONJ で] [ADJ 正当] [PRT な]]] [N 理由]] (Click this link, paste the above into the text field, choose a Japanese-compatible font like JP-Gothic, ...


5

As YangMuye explained, honorifics can be used to clarify first and second person without ever needing to use a first or second person pronoun. In that, usage of 謙譲語{けんじょうご} implies I'm talking about me. Usage of 尊敬語{そんけいご} implies I am talking about you. An extended discussion about this topic can be read on the thread titled そちら as a second person pronoun. ...


4

These are grammatically correct, but perhaps 「~ものです」 is stronger than you might think. Especially I think the third example is too strong; it's something like "Every guy is expected to give chocolates..." White Day in Japan is not that obligatory, so I'd recommend 「日本社会では、3月14日に、男性が女性にチョコをプレゼントする(という)習慣があります。」 (BTW, あげる is usually written in hiragana when ...


2

Yes, this pattern exists, and it is similar to ~べき, indicating a type of social or moral obligation/expectation (as opposed to one's own opinion). I suppose it can have the nuance of something being a habit or custom, but I'd say only if it's something pretty much accepted by everyone. You wouldn't use this referring to one's personal habits or customs. ...


4

I think you can say it like this: おはようございます!ピクニックでリナさんを探していたんですが、どこにも*見え**ませんでしたね。(polite) *どこも→どこにも **The 見える is the honorific form of いる(居る), and its subject (=リナさん) is implied. To avoid the confusing with 「(私がリナさんを)見えませんでした」(見える = potential form of 見る), you can rephrase it as 「どこにもいらっしゃらなかったですね。」, using いらっしゃる which is another honorific form of いる. ...


5

Yes, you can place frequency words like たいてい, いつも, 普通, 普段 etc. before "time+に". 私はたいてい7時15分に起きます。 私は[普通]{ふつう}7時15分に起きます。 私は[普段]{ふだん}7時15分に起きます。 etc. For more examples, see Weblio辞書usuallyを含む例文一覧


1

It is implied. If you want to follow up this sentence with a different sentence you'd need to mark the new one with は. (e.g. リナさんはどこにいたの?) And like virmaior said, the mix of casual speech with polite speech is definitely odd.



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