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13

Cleft sentences In linguistics, there's something called a cleft sentence. The basic idea is that you split a sentence into two parts in order to focus something:  1a. I met her that day.         (original sentence)   1b. It was her that [I met that day].  (clefted sentence) In this example, we split the sentence into "I met __ that day" and "her". ...


12

The girl who likes being photographed is my friend. 写真を撮って貰うことが好きだ女性は私の友達です。 Change the "好きだ"(← the 終止形/predicative form) to its 連体形/attributive form "好きな" to modify the noun 女性. So your sentence would translate to: 写真を撮ってもらうことが好きな女性は私の友達です。 or 写真を撮ってもらうのが好きな女性は私の友達です。 You can also say it as: 写真に/を撮られるのが好きな女性は私の友達です。


12

In this case, it's verb-object, like the Chinese these morphemes were borrowed from, rather than object-verb, like native Japanese syntax: 切腹 (せっぷく) = 切(せつ) (verbal morpheme) + 腹 (ふく) (object morpheme) 腹切り(はらきり) = 腹(はら) (object morpheme) + 切り(きり) (verbal morpheme) Generally, the morphemes in Sino-Japanese compounds (called 漢語【かんご】 in Japanese) follow ...


11

Adding a peculiar "sound" at the end of almost every sentence is an idiosyncrasy of many characters in Japanese anime/manga/games. Most of these sounds are simply omitted after being translated into English, but there are a few exceptions. For example even in the English version of Final Fantasy, moogles speak like "How are you, kupo!", and this kupo means ...


11

I think I don't have enough English vocabulary to express this nuance. So please let me try to explain this visually.   「~てきた」 First of all, 「~てきた」 expresses something in the past. If the speaker at present says 「~てきた」, s/he is talking about something which started sometime in the past and continued until now. Like the sentence, ...


11

I'm afraid that English and Japanese lexical categories don't match up quite that well. これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. That works. In Japanese, these are called 指示代名詞【しじだいめいし】 'demonstrative pronouns'. Keep in mind, though, that grammatically they're really more like English nouns―they permit attributive modification, which English pronouns ...


10

There is a fairly big difference in meaning between 「~~てみる」 and 「~~ようとする」 that makes them virtually noninterchangeable for the better speakers/writers. 「~~てみる」 means "to try something out often for the first time (to find out how it is, how you like it, etc.)". 「~~ようとする」 means "to attempt to ~~ to achieve some kind of goal (however insignificant it may ...


10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

First, the の seen in the first sentence is a nominalizer, which converts verbs and adjectives into nouns. See this post for how it works, but in short, it is の that makes it mean "small(er) one" here. Second, より ("than") doesn't only attach to nouns but to verbs and adjectives too. It also doesn't change the meaning the former word has. Third, 方 accepts ...


9

You are mixing up two completely different 「で's」. Particle 「で」← 「バイクで行く」、「家で食べる」, etc. [連用形]{れんようけい}(continuative form) of the affirmation auxiliary verb 「だ」. (Auxiliary verbs conjugate just as verbs and adjectives do.) 「[中国人]{ちゅうごくじん}で[日本語]{にほんご}が[話]{はな}せる[方]{かた}は、お[電話]{でんわ}ください。」 It is the second 「で」 above that is used in this sentence; ...


9

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


9

There is of course a good reason for using 「[先]{さき}」. Consider the two sentences below: 「アルバイトでピアノを[弾]{ひ}いた。」= It is your job to play the piano. 「アルバイト先でピアノを弾いた。」= There happens to be a piano where you work part-time and you played it one day. It may have been before, during or after work.


9

だ is a conclusive copula, etymologically a contraction of で+ある. It is used sentence-finally (hence the name "conclusive"). The uncontracted form is still available in Modern Japanese, but it's somewhat different in distribution and more formal. だ isn't actually a verb―it cannot stand alone and doesn't inflect like a verb. で+ある isn't a verb either, but it ...


9

The issue is in the verb choice, not in the particle. The only possible particle is indeed で. If that is not used, the longer phrase 「~~を使って」 will have to be used. The verb to use here is 考える, not 思う. 思う is too passive in meaning. Native speakers would say: 「(私は)日本語と英語で考えています。」 or 「(私は)日本語と英語の両方で考えています。」


8

The short answer is that the list would be somewhat long if not endless. Why so? Because whatever word a kid uses to address his/her own mom with, the mom will use that word to refer to herself with as if it were a first-person pronoun. You would almost need to forget English to appreciate this phenomenon in Japanese. (Your second paragraph from the ...


8

売{う}ってる is an informal contracted form of 売っている. In the 〜ている construction, いる is a special type of verb called a "subsidiary verb" (or 補助動詞 in Japanese), a verb which serves a grammatical purpose rather than having its literal meaning, and this type of verb very often contracts with 〜て.


8

先 attached in the ending of words usually defines the place where the noun takes place. アルバイト先 means the place of the part time job. Sometimes Japanese even say バイト先.


8

The best English phrase that I could think of that would retain the nuance of the original is: "whether they live or die". You do not need to translate 「にしても」 twice just because it is used twice in the original. What is more important is how things sound in the target language. The first 5 characters 「人間なんて」 already tells us that the speaker looks ...


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


8

Both 「[映画]{えいが}で[見]{み}る」 and 「映画に見る」 are correct and natural phrases but they have different meanings. 「映画で見る」 is the simpler and more often used of the two. If you saw a certain thing, place, actor, etc. in a movie, you 映画で those things を見た. Those tangible objects just physically appeared in the movie and you saw them. 「映画に見る」 is less often used and ...


8

(Even though I will be correcting many parts because that is how I make my living, I could guarantee you that every native speaker will understand your sentences as are. So, what is the point of making only this part of your whole letter sound like it was written by a native speaker?) 「[難]{むずか}しい[頼]{たの}みであることをわかっています. ...


8

Very different, in short. 「良い」 just means "good". It does not say in what way something is good. 「こだわり」 is a noun meaning, in my own words, "being very selective, paying much attention to details, etc." . There is a sense of exclusiveness and/or aesthetics associated with the word. It is often used in advertising.


8

No, the answer you got in chat is not quite right. 「[本]{ほん}は[高]{たか}くなくて[大]{おお}きくなくてもいいです。」 You would need to use 「も」 twice to make it grammatical. You could say: 「本は高くなくても、大きくなくてもいいです。」 The sentence is grammatical now, but it just does not sound very natural. As a Japanese-speaker, I could not imagine someone saying this sentence in real ...


8

This sentence says "(I) will be fired in no more than 10 days." (time)と待たずに is a common set phrase which literally means "without waiting for (time)". This と is not "if" nor "then". The role of と here corresponds to the sixth entry of デジタル大辞泉's definition. 6 (数量を表す語に付き、打消しの表現を伴って)その範囲以上には出ない意を表す。…までも。「全部で一〇〇円―かからない」「一〇〇キロ―走らなかった」


7

やめとこう is the volitional form of やめとく, which is a very frequently heard contraction of やめておく (やめる written in kanji would be 止める: to stop (doing something)). The て-form of a verb plus おく (originally from 置く: to put down) is a bit hard to explain concisely, but usually should be taken as to (not) do something now, rather than let things run their course. In ...


7

The て-form of a verb followed by いた (past tense of いる: to be) indicates the past progressive tense (e.g., 食べていた "I was eating", 飲んでいた "I was drinking"). In spoken Japanese though, the い of いた is usually silent, so it sounds like tabe[teta] and non[deta].


7

手前【てまえ】 has a number of uses; the pronoun being the much rarer case. Here it means "before" as in time. 挑みかかる手前な顔 A face one would make just before initiating a challenge. My eyes locked onto her; what with a girl dressed in a kimono being far from common. Our eyes met and she pursed her lips and made a face as if to say "bring it on".


7

This 〜た is the perfect, not past; that is, it's indicating a time before some reference time, rather than a time before speech time: 傘を持っていったほうがいい。 Lit. "Having brought an umbrella would be better." That said, I don't think native speakers actually have such a complicated model (of comparing possible future worlds, one of which where you have brought ...


7

In formal Japanese, this is the standard 連用形. It's used in place of て form of verbs when linking. It's usage in 敬語{けいご} actually goes beyond this, with these suffixes also helping form verbs. In the context of your quote, both are replaceable with て form in everyday speech. The general rule being to take the ます stem, remove this, and replace as necessary ...



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