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18

You usually can't have two をs in one clause, so when you see one, most commonly one of the following is true: It's part of a 〜を〜に(して) construction in which して is left out. AをBに → AをBに(して) You can recognize this one by the distinctive 〜を〜に pattern, often with a comma. A repeated verb has been left out ("backward gapping"): XがAを、そしてYがBを買った → ...


17

It's short for の家{うち}. You will normally see the abbreviation んち: (1a) 俺の家に来い。 (1b) 俺んちに来い。 (2a) お前の家に行きたいなぁ。 (2b) お前んちに行きたいなぁ。 But in cases where there is already an ん before the abbreviation (like おばあちゃん ends in ん in this case) we just see ち: (3a) タモリさんの家に行きたい。 (3b) タモリさんちに行きたい。 (4a) 明日麻美ちゃんの家に行く。 (4b) 明日麻美ちゃんちに行く。 So your ...


12

イラクで戦争がある。≒ イラクで戦争が起こる。 The ある means [起]{お}こる, [発生]{はっせい}する, [行]{おこな}われる (meaning #12 in goo辞書) Compare: イラクにXXがある。(= There's XX in Iraq.) イラクでXXがある。(= XX occurs/takes place/will be held in Iraq.) Edit 戦争はイラクである。doesn't sound very natural but would mean "The war will take place in Iraq" as a response to 戦争はどこであるんだ?(Where will the war take ...


11

To understand this, you need to have many natural expressions on your active vocabulary so that you can fill in what is missing or left unsaid. Japanese is NOT a language where saying everything is beautiful. The only possible phrase that is left unsaid following [私]{わたし}を[殺]{ころ}したあの[時]{とき}と[何一]{なにひと}つ would be 「[変]{か}わっていない」. 「何一つ」 is always followd by a ...


11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


11

I'm afraid that English and Japanese lexical categories don't match up quite that well. これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. That works. In Japanese, these are called 指示代名詞【しじだいめいし】 'demonstrative pronouns'. Keep in mind, though, that grammatically they're really more like English nouns―they permit attributive modification, which English pronouns ...


11

Cleft sentences In linguistics, there's something called a cleft sentence. The basic idea is that you split a sentence into two parts in order to focus something:  1a. I met her that day.         (original sentence)   1b. It was her that [I met that day].  (clefted sentence) In this example, we split the sentence into "I met __ that day" and "her". ...


10

In your second example, the direct object is 短剣, not 人の手に短剣. The direct object here can take on two different semantic roles: 花子が [ 太郎の手を   短剣で ] 刺す Hanako stabs Tarō's hand with a dagger. 花子が [   短剣を 太郎の手に ] 刺す Hanako stabs a dagger into Tarō's hand. In either case, the direct object is the noun phrase marked by を. Your first example is like the ...


10

There are two separate things to pick apart here. In your two examples, as you suspect の is really performing two different functions in your two examples. It's only in 「泳ぐのが難しい」that it's really turning the verb phrase into a noun; in 「赤いの」it's acting as a placeholder noun, which is modified by the adjective. You can't use もの to nominalise a verb phrase - ...


10

〜てほしい is used when you want someone else to do something. I've never heard it used in reference to one's own desires (and in fact, may be ungrammatical). Related: Wanting Someone To Do Something (てほしい Structure) When to use 欲しがる instead of 欲しい Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?


10

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


9

Adding the く to an i-adjective in this particular usage makes it function as an adverb so that you can use 新しい to modify できる. 新しく出来た means "newly completed." Other examples might be 速く走る、遅く起きる、赤くなる, etc. With na-adjectives you would add に to it instead of く, like 綺麗に書く or 丁寧に切る. Note that 新しく and its ilk are not what would be referred to as 副詞 in Japanese, ...


9

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


9

Is the particle に okay? I'm afraid not. I think you can say it like this: 田中さんはビデオゲームで遊んでいます。 This で is like "with", as in the instrumental (具格{ぐかく}) case, rather than "in" or "on". Or you can also say: 田中さんはビデオゲームをしています。 田中さんはビデオゲームをして遊んでいます。


9

側 is read がわ in this context and it means "standpoint", "side", "party", etc., all of which amounts to "person(s) involoved" in the action described just before the 側. [面接]{めんせつ}をする[側]{がわ} means "interviewer(s)" 面接をされる側 means "interviewee(s)" Thus, 「[未経験者]{みけいけんしゃ}を面接をする側の気持ちを考えてみる」 means: "Try(ing) to consider the feelings of those ...


9

Generally speaking:   〜と links to a following verb (or other predicate)   〜との links to a following noun (or noun equivalent) That's generally what の does—indicates a relationship to a following noun:  海へ 行く  The particle へ links 海 to the following verb 行く  海への道   The particle の links 海へ to the following noun 道 In English, we use word order ...


9

Textbooks vs. People. Careful speakers would not say ではなかったら, that is for sure, but not all of us are careful speakers and some of us will say it anyway. Textbooks need to draw the line somewhere and I feel yours made a good decision regarding this grammar point. More interestingly, the sentence you gave 「ここで質問することではなかったらすみません。」 is VERY tricky. It is ...


9

I think we say したいと思います to mean "would like to do (now)", and したいと思っています to mean "would like to/hope to do (in the future)". I think したいと思います/と思っています sounds politer (and humbler?) than したいです.


9

I think here あそびに means something like "for fun" or "for leisure". In other words, they came on a pleasure trip, not for business or studying. What may be confusing is that it's natural to express this in Japanese directly when you'd express it only indirectly in English. Phrases like "came to visit" or "went to see" generally imply that it's for pleasure ...


9

There are a few simple ways to express this. 「~~と(or に)+ [似]{に}ている」 = "similar to ~~" 「~~の + よう + です/だ/である」 = "like ~~" 「~~みたい + です/だ/である」 = "just like ~~" To use a slightly bigger word, one could say: 「~~と + [同様]{どうよう} + です/だ/である」 = "(very) similar to ~~" For the negative forms of the phrases above, make the following changes: 似ている ⇒ ...


9

The conjunctive particles ど and ども are Classical Japanese contradictory conjunctions, like the English but and although. Although they aren't used as much anymore, you surely know them from the modern けれど(も), and you probably know them from いえども and されど as well. They attached to the 已然形 (realis stem), which in modern Japanese has been reanalyzed as the ...


9

as far as I can guess it's close to the second one here. [副助]名詞、名詞に準じる語、副詞、活用語の終止形、助詞などに付く。それ以外にも適当なものがあるという気持ちを含めて、ある事柄を例示的に示す意を表す。…でも。「彼に―相談したらいい」「電話―してください」 Maybe you're right. なり in this case describes that there's an available way you can choose directly, but it seems that you are still able to choose another way. 「彼になり相談したらいい」 ...


9

It would literally be: [科学]{かがく}が好きになり[始]{はじ}めました。 ...using the verb なる(成る;grow/become) and 始める. But I think you could also say it as: 科学が好きになってきました。 ...using なる and the subsidiary verb くる(来る).


9

Both ~によると and ~によれば can be used to mean "according to". "A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar" defines it as: "According to", "based on". A compound particle that is used to identify the source of the information provided in the sentence. As for the difference between the two, it states: Ni yoreba can replace ni yoru to without changing the ...


9

The verbs する and なる are a transitive-intransitive pair. When they follow the 〜く form of adjectives, they're kind of like "make" and "become": Aが    赤くなる "A becomes red"   (A turns red, blushes, etc.) Aが Bを 赤くする "A makes B red" The main difference here is that with なる the subject turns red, while with する the subject turns the object red. And なる ...


9

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


8

In this case, 「に」 is not a location marker. It indicates the receiving end of an action, offer, request, order, etc. So, 「[君]{きみ} = "you"」 is on the receiving end here. 「[話]{はな}し」 does not mean "a story" here. Rather, it means "a word" as in "to have a word with someone". 「~~に話しがある」 should be remembered as a set phrase meaning "would like a word with ...


8

わたしの父は中国語も英語も話せます。 My father can speak both Chinese and English. ~も~も is how you say "both ... and ..." in Japanese. It works with all particles, as も does by itself, i.e. usually replaces は, が, を and follows へ, に, etc. It also works with more than two も's, e.g. わたしの父は中国語も英語もドイツ語も話せます。 My father can speak (all of) Chinese, English and German. ...


8

でもリトリートがどんなものかは、However as for what kind of thing the retreat is スケジュールをご覧になって頂くと、if you look at the schedule 一番分かると思いましたので、I thought you would best understand so 未完成ながらも while not complete 送らせて頂きました。I sent However I thought you would best understand what sort of retreat this is if you took a look at the schedule, so I went ahead and sent it though it's ...


8

Your confusion appears to come from the fact that there are two different 「だと」's. 1) When 「だと」 is used as the colloquial form of 「であると」, only nouns can directly precede it. Here, the na-adjective stems are naturally included as well. 「[花子]{はなこ}さんはとてもきれいだと[聞]{き}いている。」 = "I hear that Hanako is very pretty." ...



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