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19

You usually can't have two をs in one clause, so when you see one, most commonly one of the following is true: It's part of a 〜を〜に(して) construction in which して is left out. AをBに → AをBに(して) You can recognize this one by the distinctive 〜を〜に pattern, often with a comma. A repeated verb has been left out ("backward gapping"): XがAを、そしてYがBを買った → ...


17

It's short for の家{うち}. You will normally see the abbreviation んち: (1a) 俺の家に来い。 (1b) 俺んちに来い。 (2a) お前の家に行きたいなぁ。 (2b) お前んちに行きたいなぁ。 But in cases where there is already an ん before the abbreviation (like おばあちゃん ends in ん in this case) we just see ち: (3a) タモリさんの家に行きたい。 (3b) タモリさんちに行きたい。 (4a) 明日麻美ちゃんの家に行く。 (4b) 明日麻美ちゃんちに行く。 So your ...


13

Generally speaking:   〜と links to a following verb (or other predicate)   〜との links to a following noun (or noun equivalent) That's generally what の does—indicates a relationship to a following noun:  海へ 行く  The particle へ links 海 to the following verb 行く  海への道   The particle の links 海へ to the following noun 道 In English, we use word order ...


13

Cleft sentences In linguistics, there's something called a cleft sentence. The basic idea is that you split a sentence into two parts in order to focus something:  1a. I met her that day.         (original sentence)   1b. It was her that [I met that day].  (clefted sentence) In this example, we split the sentence into "I met __ that day" and "her". ...


12

In this case, it's verb-object, like the Chinese these morphemes were borrowed from, rather than object-verb, like native Japanese syntax: 切腹 (せっぷく) = 切(せつ) (verbal morpheme) + 腹 (ふく) (object morpheme) 腹切り(はらきり) = 腹(はら) (object morpheme) + 切り(きり) (verbal morpheme) Generally, the morphemes in Sino-Japanese compounds (called 漢語【かんご】 in Japanese) follow ...


11

〜てほしい is used when you want someone else to do something. I've never heard it used in reference to one's own desires (and in fact, may be ungrammatical). Related: Wanting Someone To Do Something (てほしい Structure) When to use 欲しがる instead of 欲しい Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?


11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


11

I'm afraid that English and Japanese lexical categories don't match up quite that well. これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. That works. In Japanese, these are called 指示代名詞【しじだいめいし】 'demonstrative pronouns'. Keep in mind, though, that grammatically they're really more like English nouns―they permit attributive modification, which English pronouns ...


10

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


10

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

側 is read がわ in this context and it means "standpoint", "side", "party", etc., all of which amounts to "person(s) involoved" in the action described just before the 側. [面接]{めんせつ}をする[側]{がわ} means "interviewer(s)" 面接をされる側 means "interviewee(s)" Thus, 「[未経験者]{みけいけんしゃ}を面接をする側の気持ちを考えてみる」 means: "Try(ing) to consider the feelings of those ...


9

There is a fairly big difference in meaning between 「~~てみる」 and 「~~ようとする」 that makes them virtually noninterchangeable for the better speakers/writers. 「~~てみる」 means "to try something out often for the first time (to find out how it is, how you like it, etc.)". 「~~ようとする」 means "to attempt to ~~ to achieve some kind of goal (however insignificant it may ...


9

as far as I can guess it's close to the second one here. [副助]名詞、名詞に準じる語、副詞、活用語の終止形、助詞などに付く。それ以外にも適当なものがあるという気持ちを含めて、ある事柄を例示的に示す意を表す。…でも。「彼に―相談したらいい」「電話―してください」 Maybe you're right. なり in this case describes that there's an available way you can choose directly, but it seems that you are still able to choose another way. 「彼になり相談したらいい」 ...


9

Both ~によると and ~によれば can be used to mean "according to". "A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar" defines it as: "According to", "based on". A compound particle that is used to identify the source of the information provided in the sentence. As for the difference between the two, it states: Ni yoreba can replace ni yoru to without changing the ...


9

The verbs する and なる are a transitive-intransitive pair. When they follow the 〜く form of adjectives, they're kind of like "make" and "become": Aが    赤くなる "A becomes red"   (A turns red, blushes, etc.) Aが Bを 赤くする "A makes B red" The main difference here is that with なる the subject turns red, while with する the subject turns the object red. And なる ...


9

だ is a conclusive copula, etymologically a contraction of で+ある. It is used sentence-finally (hence the name "conclusive"). The uncontracted form is still available in Modern Japanese, but it's somewhat different in distribution and more formal. だ isn't actually a verb―it cannot stand alone and doesn't inflect like a verb. で+ある isn't a verb either, but it ...


9

The issue is in the verb choice, not in the particle. The only possible particle is indeed で. If that is not used, the longer phrase 「~~を使って」 will have to be used. The verb to use here is 考える, not 思う. 思う is too passive in meaning. Native speakers would say: 「(私は)日本語と英語で考えています。」 or 「(私は)日本語と英語の両方で考えています。」


8

かろう is a way of making だろう style volitional out of i-adjectives, so instead of ~のではないだろう it becomes ~のではなかろう. It has a little bit of an older feel to it, but there are some constructions where you need to use this. For example, you might say どんなに暑かろうとも~. Sometimes people in fiction might say よかろう in place of いいだろう. Keep in mind that it is not a very ...


8

「って」 is the only correct (and possible) answer here. When someone asks the question 「ねえ, 田中さん(   )どんなひと?」, the asker should basically have no knowledge of Tanaka, correct? That is where the quotative 「って」 comes into place --- "this Tanaka guy", "this guy called --- what was his name, Tanaka?", etc. Using 「が」 is very unnatural (I would call it plain ...


8

There is 「こと」 that actually means "thing(s)" and there is 「こと」 that does not mean "thing(s)". 「ふたつのことをかんがえています。」 means "I am thinking of two things." The こと clearely means "thing". In the following sentence, however, こと does not really mean that. 「すみこさんのことがすきです。」 = "I like/love Sumiko." One could possibly translate it as "I like the things ...


8

売{う}ってる is an informal contracted form of 売っている. In the 〜ている construction, いる is a special type of verb called a "subsidiary verb" (or 補助動詞 in Japanese), a verb which serves a grammatical purpose rather than having its literal meaning, and this type of verb very often contracts with 〜て.


8

This doesn't directly answer your question for the exact wording, but a common speech "closing" I've heard is ご[清聴]{せい・ちょう}ありがとうございました → Thank you very much for your attention Note: Don't confuse this [清聴]{せい・ちょう} with this [静聴]{せい・ちょう} that has a slightly different meaning.


8

Yes, ~うる (or ~える) can be thought of as a potential form. It's an auxiliary that expresses "can", and it attaches to the continuative form (連用形) of a verb. That's the same form of the verb you use before the polite auxiliary ~ます, so we get forms like these:   ある   →  ありうる   考える  →  考えうる   する   →  しうる In kanji, this verb would be written 得る, but in ...


8

The best English phrase that I could think of that would retain the nuance of the original is: "whether they live or die". You do not need to translate 「にしても」 twice just because it is used twice in the original. What is more important is how things sound in the target language. The first 5 characters 「人間なんて」 already tells us that the speaker looks ...


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...



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