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9

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


6

First, I must say that "it has been decided that ~~" is a highly overrated translation of 「~~ことになる」 among J-learners. Truth is that that is not what it means even half the time. 「あすで1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。」 means "It will have ended up raining a whole week." It has already been raining for 6 straight days now and the weather forecast says that it will rain ...


5

Side question first, so I will not forget. Whenever you see a 「上」 or 「下」 in an explanation in a Japanese dictionary, "Think Vertical" as in "vertical writing" and take the words 「上」 and 「下」 literally. 「上」 refers to what precedes something and 「下」, what folllows. Thus, 「上に来る副詞」 refers to 「よく」 and 「どうして」, respectively, in the example expressions. On to ...


4

There are a few verbs that do this. It's not just 思う but also 考える. I tried coming up with an English parallel but after a few goes decided that they don't work. The source difference as I see it is that the Japanese language has a stricter account of philosophy of mind that works from the idea that we don't have access to the thoughts and feelings of ...


4

A は B ではないか is asking "isn't A (=) B?", and here used as a (stylized) rhetorical question, i.e. meaning "I think that A is B". Since A と思いますが is "I think that A, but ...", we are also dealing with a an ellipsis (assuming you're quoting the whole sentence). In any case, both figures of speech are very commonly used in Japanese. Unfortunate for a ...


3

There is virtually no difference in meaning but there is a slight difference in nuance, therefore, in actual usage. Using 「どのような批判があろう + が」 could make you sound a bit more defensive and/or excited about your own opinion being presented than when using 「どのような批判があろう + と」. The latter would help show your composure as an author better than the former. Without ...


3

A bare ます-stem can be used to join sentences together, much like the て-form. Another valid way to render this sentence would be as follows: オオカミのことばに従って、森に行った。 In both cases it translates to "In accordance with the wolf's words, [I] went to the woods."


3

If you don't care about who is doing the thinking, then why not make it much more natural and use the passive voice? ボブさんによれば、株価が高いと思われているそうだ。 According to Bob, the stock price is thought to be high. Also do you mean: 株【かぶ】価【か】 stock price or 物価【ぶっか】 cost of living? If you want to omit the subject you do need context I'm afraid. A: ...


1

The meaning of て行く is that something is happening now and continuing into the future. So すすんで行く would be an advance that has begun and will continue into the future, or a continual state of advancement. And with a quick check on Google Translate, さいて行く is "beginning to bloom". So your definition of "getting into the state of doing X" would be applicable in ...


1

Your final question is different from the one in the title. First, ~たち is not built-in. The noun 友 can appear on its own. See here for more information. Therefore, the answer to your last question is no. I want to mention though that ~たち, or suffixes such as ~ら, ~ども, etc. do not mark the plural in the strict sense, but rather an associative. An ...


1

1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。 is totally fine. "it will end up raining for a week" 1週間雨が降りつづくようになる。 is very strange. "it will come to be that it rains for a week" 1週間雨が降りつづくようだ。 is fine. "it appears that it will rain for a week" Using user1713450's pizza example: ピザを食べることにした "I decided to eat pizza" ピザを食べることになった "I ended up eating pizza" ピザを食べるようになった "I came to eat ...


1

Yes, all the reasoning above is just mere speculation. Now is the why (I'm not sure to use the good terms so feel free to edit if you think it is necessary). The major difference between だ and である is that である is a real verb (ie. it is not defective) but だ is not. So there is no restriction in the use of the 連体形 of である but according to 助動詞_(国文法) (wikipedia) ...



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