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Modal vs. Present Tense vs. Past Tense 「[美人]{びじん}じゃなくて[悪]{わる}かったですね!」 = "Too bad I'm not such a beauty!" That is called 「ムードの『た』」 = the "modal 'ta'", not the past tense 'ta'. It is used when one's expectation matches or fails to match reality. The female speaker of the sentence above knows that the male listener has expected her to be pretty, but he ...


5

The main difference is that こそ is used to single out something as a primary "example" of something. It is usually only used to emphasize something "positive". It most often will replace は to add the emphasis. It's not a direct translation, but it might help to think of it in term of something like "especially" or "particularly". 音楽こそ命だ → Music is ...


5

You've gotten a few things confused here. Here, ふる is a verb meaning "to dump" (or "to reject"). I don't know that "trip up" is a meaning of ふる, though I could well be unaware of it. So, ~にふられる means "to be dumped by ~". The 恋人 is the 友達's 恋人, not the speaker's. 落ち込む should be seen as a single verb with its own meaning here, rather than as a compound of ...


4

Your translation is correct. The sentence parses thus: ...新商品を お試しくださいます よう ご案内申し上げます。 So the ます is not separate at all. The first verb is in fact お試しくださいます. The pattern verb X + よう(に)+ verb Y means that Y happens for/so that X happens. 彼に電話するように言ってください。 → Please tell him (that he should / to) call me. (Inside train/subway cars as they ...


1

As you understand, 興奮する is not a static aspect (, which is 興奮している). In that sense, the description of the dictionary should be "興奮する: get excited, 興奮している: be excited". However the problem is, actual usage of the two forms isn't correspondent between English and Japanese. For example, "I watched the movie. I was excited" is (I believe) more common than "got ...


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No, they do not constitute their own class of part of speech. It is true, however, that they can function in such an "exceptional" way that it makes them look as though they constituted one of their own. 「ちょうだい」 is a noun by name (頂戴 in kanji), meaning "the humble act of receiving something". Usage as a straight-up noun: 「おいしいハムを頂戴しました。」 = "I have ...



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