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3

Exactly as you say. 「たくさんの[階段]{かいだん}を[昇]{のぼ}った[後]{あと}だったので[彼女]{かのじょ}は[完全]{かんぜん}に[息]{いき}を[切]{き}らしていた。」 "After running up so many flights of steps, she was completely out of breath. " The English translation from that page is not topnotch IMHO because it fails to reflect the strong causal link that you speak of. More specifically, it does not even ...


3

Don't treat 「とは」 as a single unit. 「〜と違う」 means "different from". This 「と」 is the one normally glossed as "with", although I can't think of a way to use that gloss here. When 「〜と違う」 is used in the outermost layer of the sentence, it is normally becomes 「〜とは違う」. While I can't give a technical explanation of why this is the case, I'd say the hand-wavey one ...


2

Here, とは is just pointing out that we're defining a characteristic of the N700 group. (The と is the quotative particle, but I don't think that really helps in parsing this.) どこが違う? is not asking for a definition per se, but for defining a characteristic. Your translation is pretty close. Literally, I'd translate it as something like: Where is the ...


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Your translation shows your complete understanding of the phrase even if you do not like it yourself. A difficulty this relative clause could present for the translator is the fact that 「霞む」 is an intransitive verb and that is not the action either performed by or against 「打突」, the main noun of the relative clause. What I often do in such cases is that I ...


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In this sentence, I think the author suggests valuing one important thing, life. Not two things (life and self) separately. So I would say this 読点 (comma) servers as an appositive marker. That is to say, 一回限りの人生 and かけがえのない自己 are the same idea described in two different ways. To translate this literally, you can use comma as well in English: Let's ...


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This isn't literal but it seems natural: 妹の誕生日に人形をあげました。


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As @Eric mentioned, に is the correct choice, and there is no harm in having two of them in this sentence. In addition to that, you could use には to emphasize that it was specifically for her birthday instead of some other occasion. 誕生日には妹に人形をあげました。 → For her birthday, I gave my little sister a doll. Note that you can also use [贈]{おく}る for giving a ...


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There is no problem having two に particles in one sentence. Your original choice is most correct. Using [event]+に is the best way to express that something will happen for [event], and [person]+にあげる happens to also be the best way to express that you are giving something to [person]. 誕生日{たんじょうび}に妹{いもうと}に人形{にんぎょう}をあげました。


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I think the difference has more to do with semantics rather than specific words or phrasing. Even in English, we say "I was sick, but I got better", to imply that being "well" is the normal state, probably because being sick in prolonged state is not commonly seen, but if you wanted to, you could also use the same exact wording to indicate recovering from a ...



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