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8

To add to @Locksleyu's answer, 出す in "the continuative form of a verb (動詞の連用形) + 出す" can mean either: ㋐ そうすることによって外や表面に現れるようにする意を表す。「しぼり―・す」「見つけ―・す」 to make something reveal/appear outside or on the surface by doing the action, eg 「しぼり出す」(squeeze out) 「見つけ出す」(find out) or ㋑ その動作を始める意を表す。「降り―・す」「笑い―・す」 to start the action, eg 「降り出す」(start to ...


7

「みで」is not the expression your looking for. That part of the sentence should be parsed クリック のみ では - "by only clicking" You're on the right track. By changing 正しい to 正しく it becomes an adverb, so you get 正しく開けない - "can't correctly open" メーラー is probably "mailer", perhaps you mistook the first kana?


6

「来年【らいねん】日本へ行【い】くと言いました」 can mean (but is not limited to): I said I will go to Japan next year. He/she said he/she will go to Japan next year. I said he/she will go to Japan next year. (ie, I told someone else that he/she will go to Japan) You said you will go to Japan next year. (a bit hard to think of a context where this interpretation is suitable, but ...


6

It's impossible to parse it as a relative clause because there is only one verb/adjective (ie, 見えます) in the whole sentence. As a rule, each sub-clause must have a verb/adjective. So the real question is: "Which word this 向こうに modifies?" 向こうに can only modify a verb, and 向こうの modifies a noun. Both can be translated as "over there" in English, but you need to ...


5

The second sentences here are not indirect instructions. The first sentences are direct commands. The second sentences describe the resulting situation. Sensei: 作文を書きなさい。 "Write a composition!" Indirect >> 先生は学生に作文を書かせました。 "The teacher made the students write a composition." Shachou: 鈴木課長、上村くんの世話をしてくれ。 "Suzuki-kacho, take good ...


5

休む{やすむ} is used as both: an intransitive verb meaning "to rest", "take a day off" as in 庭{にわ}で休む{やすむ} a transitive verb meaning "to skip", "take a break from", "be absent from" as in the case of 学校{がっこう}を休む{やすむ} 休む does not have a direct counterpart (with transitive and intransitive usage) in English, however such verbs are quite common. For example you ...


5

Yes, the sentence is perfectly correct. The auxiliary (助動詞) 「れる/られる」 has four meanings: 「受け身」(passive), 「尊敬」(honorific), 「可能」(potential), and 「自発」(spontaneous). Here in your example, it is used as honorific. 総理大臣はヨーロッパを訪問されたくさんの国々の大統領に会われた。 is not the passive voice, but the honorific speech (尊敬語) of: 総理大臣はヨーロッパを訪問したくさんの国々の大統領に会った。 Which ...


4

You have to guess, based on what is most likely the intended meaning. Let's try to translate literally as much as possible and I'll try to demonstrate what I mean... For the two examples that you gave: 日本{にほん}に行{い}ったら日本語{にほんご}を習{なら}う when go to Japan / will learn Japanese トマトやりんごを投{な}げた threw tomatoes and apples In English, these ...


4

You would use の instead of に here (linking two nouns), so 家族の中. You also want to insert a superlative (phrase that means "most"/"best"/#1). One example is 一番(目). There are many others, like もっとも, だれより(も) (less common), etc. So something like: 家族の中で一番背が高い人は誰ですか。 For some basic examples of superlatives, see this page.


3

日本語 もうおっしゃったように 「次の信号を左」、「前の角を右」 云々は、肝要なところが抜けているだけだと存じます。 本来なら完全な文書では、 次の信号を左。。。に曲がります 前の角を右。。。に曲がってください まで言いますが、省略してしまうのが一般的ですね。 下記のように: 「図書館の前を歩く」 「空を飛ぶ」 「曲がる」・「飛ぶ」・「歩く」・「走る」のような「移動性」のある動詞の対象となる語をよく「を」でマークします。 それで、「で」は何故だめなのかについては、勘で言っているだけですが、「で」を移動動詞と使うと、「で」の「手段」を指定する機能を先に考えてしまうからではないでしょうか? 例えば、 道を歩く 道で歩く 道では歩けるが、...


3

They might be confusing, but: 一年後 いちねんご ichinen go — one year after(wards); one year later 一年後 いちねんあと ichinen ato — one year later; one year behind 後一年 あといちねん ato ichinen — one year remaining; one year until (The word あと is written in hiragana more often than not.) So, there are significant differences between them, though I don't deny ...


3

Judging from the context you provided, I think it's read as 穿【うが】った, and means "actually carved/engraved on the hand". 穿つ means "to drill", but in this context I feel it's better to translate it as "to carve/engrave" (using something like a chisel/knife, or some similar magical device). The speaker thought those letters were actually carved/engraved on ...


2

I suggest 携帯さえ持ってないほど. Another option is 携帯すら持ってないほど. And 携帯でもないほど doesn't make sense but 携帯もないほど and 携帯だってないほど make sense.


2

これは道路の上に作られた細い溝と、その上を通るタイヤによって作られるのだが、制限速度で走らないと音楽らしい音楽に聞こえない。 This was created from the narrow gutter which lay upon the road and the tires which passed above it, but it didn't sound like music unless the car was going the speed limit. ところが、その数はあまり増えなかった。それはメロディーロードからの音楽が騒音の元になるかもしれないという理由で、ほとんどが街中から離れたところに作られたからである。 However, they had never built ...


2

I think as a general rule you don't often want to use よ when answering a question unless you think your answer will surprise the person asking the question. However, in your example about Tokyo, you are not asking a direct question, so I think it's better to use よ when you speak about the (surprising) thing you did. Removing よ from that sounds oddly neutral ...


2

First we have to make a distinction between 日本語教育 and 国語教育 (which follows 学校文法). In 日本語教育 the te-form always includes the て/で part. In 国語教育 the te-form is not recognized, as it is just considered to be a perverse version of the 連用形 and not an actual newly developed form. I think there are two reasons: Simplification of the grammar 「て形」を独立した活用形の一つと考えると、「...


2

As you showed in the chart, The pre-ます-form is regular 五段動詞の連用形 The pre-て-form is(五段動詞の連用形)+(音便) So I think it is a correct and helpful distinction from a phrase-production perspective. Especially for learners asking questions like, "How do I say 'He is eating an apple'?" But Japanese grammarians are likely more considered with the 音便 itself from ...


2

Here 騎 is used as a generic counter for "fighters". Originally, 騎 is a counter for cavalries, and using 騎 to actually count cavalries is of course rare these days. But idiomatic words like 一騎打ち or 一騎当千 are still very common today. Probably the author had 一騎当千 in his mind, and thought it was nice to use the counter 騎 to describe this situation. I can't say it'...


1

I fear this is less an answer by itself (you have received two very good ones already), but rather a strongly related aside. Most materials for Japanese language learners take a one-size-fits-all approach that roughly equates to "favor immediate (safe) usability (= production)". This is why nearly all common text books teach ~ます first instead of teaching ...


1

向こうに大きなビルが見えます。 "The big building is visible over there." "The big building over there is visible." From my experience, there is no problem with either of these translations. Although 「向こうにある大きなビルが見えます」is probably better. Here are a couple others which might be natural in context... "(You) can see a big building on the other side." "(There is) a big ...


1

向こう is grammatically a noun, so the sentence you have can really only be parsed as AにBがする → (向こう)に(大きなビル)が(見える). If you want it to be parsed as in your second translation, I think you have no choice but to choose something like 向こうにある(あの)大きなビルが見える.


1

Besides the function you mentioned, it can also prompt the listener to take somewhat proper action. In this context, it can imply that you want him/her to listen to consequence of the story. In that sense, you can naturally use it.


1

レアメタル is indeed "rare metal" (or rare earth), and どうたら/どうたらこうたら is like "blah-blah", "such-and-such", "you-know-what". It's used in place of an obvious and/or unimportant part. The following questions are related. What does うんたらかんたら mean? The phrase うんやらかんやら? So "レアメタルがどうたら" means "rare metals are blah blah blah" And in case you didn't know, phones ...


1

I take your quote. ”メーラーの設定によってクリックのみでは正しく開けない場合があります” as; Depending on the setting on the part of the mail sender, there is a case that you cannot open the file simply by clicking (the mouse). 1.“みで” should be “のみで” meaning “only by (clicking). 2."正しく開けない" means “unable to open (the file) properly. "メーラー" should be “mailer / mail sender.”


1

Although, I think I do understand the meaning of it In one hour before 8:30 am, when the reservations started No, this sentence means "By 8:30 AM, which is an hour before the registration started, ...". The actual registration starts at 9:30, which is written at the end of the article. Here, の is used as the apposition marker. 友達の田中さん ...


1

This looks like the explanatory の (like のだ・のです・んだ・んです). (It is used to mark that the information answers an actual or anticipated question, i.e., "I'm not just saying this just for fun, but to explain something", and tends to have an emphatic effect). However, the following copula is converted to a conjunctive form で so that the usual でもいい form for "it is ...



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