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10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


7

Unless you are already pretty fluent, my true recommendation would be to not use 「なら」 in saying "I slept early, but I did not take medicine." If a Japanese-speaker (me) had to think for a few seconds about how to say something, it would usually not be the most natural-sounding sentence. 「なら」 works better with two nouns with only one verb (as your ...


6

I'll assume that you aren't literally asking how to conjugate 「思う」 to past tense (which simply put, is just 「思った」), but instead that you are actually asking "how to use it in past tense". What makes this complicated is that 「〜と思う」 doesn't mean "to think ~" (as in, the state of holding some belief). Instead, it means something more like "to have the ...


6

Sorry but both Eric Wang and e2r2i2k2 are incorrect. 言わず is similar to 言わないで, not 言わない (unless it's placed at the end of a sentence). And this 思わず is a negative adverbial which modifies 働き. ず never modifies a noun. ず ≒ ずに ≒ ないで ( 思わず = negative of 思い )≒ 思わずに ≒ ( 思わないで = negative of 思って ) So the sentence means: "Having worked twice as hard as others without ...


6

Here is an extensive article about this topic. 「大きい声」と「大きな声」 Very short summary: 大きい and 大きな are interchangeable in most cases. On average, 大きな is 8 times more frequently used than 大きい which directly modifies the following noun. 大きい sometimes means "elder/older". 大きな doesn't. 一番大きい兄さん (the eldest brother) vs. 一番大きな兄さん (elder brother with the largest ...


6

To be fair, the English would be just as ambiguous: "I'm gonna say it nice and simple so even you can understand, so thank me [feel thankful], will ya?"


6

Conjugation of べき べき, or rather べし (kanji 可し), is an auxiliary adjective* just like for example 熱い. However, it retains the classical conjugation of adjectives. 熱い had once been 熱【あつ】き, and there existed an additional form 熱【あつ】し. 熱き is used for modifying nouns (熱き炎), 熱し for ending sentences (炎は熱し). In the classical conjugation, there existed an あり-form ...


5

I believe this was a typo. 「しておりますしょうか」 itself is neither grammatical nor commonly accepted. Your assumption that it was meant to mean 「しておりますでしょうか」 is perfectly rigid.


5

You are on the right track. ともよのお店で靴を買いました。 works. The construction AのB combines two nouns A and B into one noun phrase, i.e. grammatically AのB works just like a single noun. Just note that this sounds like it's someone's shop, like you know Tomoyo (it sounds like that in English, too). If "Tomoyo's Shop" is just the name of the shop, you can just say ...


5

Your Sentence This is how it breaks down: [君を    笑い   ]に    来た [kimi=wo waraw-i ]=ni ki-ta [you=PATIENT laugh-CONT]=PURPOSE come-PAST "I came to laugh at you" That is: the inner clause is 「君を笑う」 "laugh at you", that inner clause gets inflected to the 連用形{れんようけい}: 「君を笑い」, then it gets added as an argument to 「来た」 via the PURPOSE 「〜に」 ...


5

There's nothing special about 勝ち in the sentence. In fact, I think you can safely think of へ as "to, toward, towards", both for physical and metaphorical direction. 日本語の理解へ ! Towards a better understanding of Japanese! 明るい未来へ ! Towards a brighter future!


5

[君]{きみ} vs. [君]{くん} 1) 君 is read きみ in:「一条、君の事好きだった。」 2) 君 is read くん in:「一条君の事好きだった。」 In Sentence #1, 「[君]{きみ}」 is a second-person pronoun. In Sentence #2, 「[君]{くん}」 is a friendly honorific mostly for boys or those who are lower in status than you. Sentence #1 can only mean one thing: "I liked you, Ichijou." Sentence #2 can mean two completely ...


5

It appears that you may be overanalyzing the phrase a little bit. 「(Verb) + とするか」 is a set phrase that one says to oneself meaning: "Time to (verb)!" or "Gotta (verb)!" You do not need a listener to say this even out loud, either. "I know that とする can mean "to decide to", like にする, the sentence would then mean : I (just decided that) am ...


5

I slept on it and still think it is a great question because you noticed something as a learner that I had never noticed in all of my life as a Japanese speaker. We DO say 「いい[人]{ひと}そう」 quite frequently and think nothing of it. We DO NOT, however, really say 「すばらしい人そう」、「[頭]{あたま}のいい人そう」、「[保守的]{ほしゅてき}な人そう」, etc. Just like 「いい + 人 + そう」, all of those have ...


5

漆谷 (2010) states that "noun + そうだ" was once widespread until Edo period, then gradually lost in the lead up to present-day language. While he cites actual examples 「いい酒そう」 or 「お眠気そう」 from Edo novels and play books, he says the major part of attachable nouns are those about person or place. Of course these usages have been almost perished today, but it seems ...


5

Without fear, I am going to state that both 「でない」 and 「ではない」 are "correct" negative forms of 「である」. Both are in wide use in our time. That is, however, not to say that there exists a great amount of interchangeability between 「でない」 and 「ではない」. 「ではない」 is used most often in main clauses while 「でない」 is generally used in subordinate clauses. Main ...


4

It's a grammatically sound sentence. That said... 1) The mixing of 勉強 and 習う is kind of weird, I think. 2) Unless it's there for special emphasis, I think you can dispose of the 私が. 3) This might just be a question of style, but ~ことにする should be in the past tense when making a decision (since you've already made it). If you're making a selection, then ...


4

A common feature in Japanese is to shorten things down to its very essence, in this case が言いました/が言った are simply omitted because to a native speaker it is obvious what the verb should be.


4

だ can be dropped after i-adj because the final い in i-adj, or its conjugations, carries the same meaning as the copula itself. In na-adj, the final な--used as a link from the adjective to nouns or noun phrases--is etymologically derived from the copula. ( In 古語, the link is more easily understood. Changes to the language overtime obfuscated the connection, ...


4

Your question seems a little too broad to answer, but: I want to be happy. -- [私]{わたし}は[幸]{しあわ}せになりたい。 [ 〜に-なる ] I can be happy. -- 私は幸せになれる。 [ なれる (potential form of なる) ] I made him happy. -- 私は[彼]{かれ}を幸せにした。 [ ~に-する ] He has to be happy. -- 彼は幸せでなければならない。[ ~なければならない ] He should be happy. -- 彼は幸せであるべきだ。[ ~べき-だ ] He must be happy. ...


3

Whenever you suspect a quotative 「と」, it would often help understand the sentence better if you actually put the supposedly quoted phrase in real or imaginary parentheses AND insert a verb after the と that you feel might have been implied by the author or speaker. [早]{はや}く[花]{はな}がさくようにと、[毎日水]{まいにちみず}をやっている。 = 『早く花がさくように』と、毎日水をやっている。 = ...


3

The biggest difference is in the range of usage that the two expressions allow themselves. 「ために」 can be used in far more situations than 「に」 because: you can only choose from a handful of verbs for Verb B in 「[連用形]{れんようけい} of Verb A + に + Verb B」 whereas choices for Verb B in 「Verb A + ために + Verb B」 are unlimited. Choices for Verb A, which ...


3

箇所{かしょ} (or 個所) is a physical "point" you can point where it is (that is, on the paper or elsewhere). You can translate it as "place", "spot" or "site". 点{てん}, by contrast, indicates abstract "point" you can only name in your mind (unless it means literal "dot"). Possible translations are "respect", "regard" or "aspect". ○ 論旨{ろんし}に筋{すじ}の通{とお}らない点がある。 ...


3

This is what we call a 「ひっかけ[問題]{もんだい}」, a catch question. Even though 「にくい」 and 「とくい」 may look alike, each belongs to a different part of speech. 「にくい」 is a [形容詞]{けいようし} and 「とくい」, a [形容動詞]{けいようどうし}. In the world of Japanese-as-a-foreign-language, however, I hear that the former is called an "i-adjective" and the latter, a "na-adjective". When ...


3

"~という訳ではない" is a common set phrase which corresponds to "That is not to say ~" or "That doesn't mean ~", referring to what was already stated. Using でもない instead of ではない adds "not in particular" or "not really" feelings to the sentence. There is another common set phrase "だから何だ?" (or "だからどうした?"), which means "so what?" It actually implies something negative ...


3

「(Situation or event) + (だ)から + と言ってなんだ(、) + というわけ + では/でも/じゃ + ない」 In short, this is a set phrase to make things vague. It being a set phrase is the important point because it will enable the listener or reader to know automatically that the speaker or writer is being purposely vague about something. Because it is a phrase to make things vague, it ...


3

私は食べるのが好きです means "I like eating" and 食べるの functions as a noun but 行って(は) as in 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う is not a noun but an adverb or a verb in an adverbial form, and it means "Every friday I go to Japan and think". As for 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う, first, は is not a particle to denote the subject of the sentence here, so the sentence doesn't mean "the act of going make me ...


3

のに introduce some disappointment. The room's owner would say the second sentence but never the first. The second sentence is just an observation. The のに includes a soft 'Why isn't it clean as always ?'


3

You cannot say: *「[昨日]{きのう}メッセージを[書]{か}いていなくてしまいました。」 as it is ungrammatical and it does not mean anything. You can, however, say: 「昨日メッセージを書かなくなってしまいました。」, which is at least grammatical, if not very natural content-wise. It would mean: "I stopped writing messages yesterday." The reason that it does not sound natural in Japanese is that "昨日" ...



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