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11

I'm afraid that English and Japanese lexical categories don't match up quite that well. これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. That works. In Japanese, these are called 指示代名詞【しじだいめいし】 'demonstrative pronouns'. Keep in mind, though, that grammatically they're really more like English nouns―they permit attributive modification, which English pronouns ...


8

売{う}ってる is an informal contracted form of 売っている. In the 〜ている construction, いる is a special type of verb called a "subsidiary verb" (or 補助動詞 in Japanese), a verb which serves a grammatical purpose rather than having its literal meaning, and this type of verb very often contracts with 〜て.


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


8

Both 「[映画]{えいが}で[見]{み}る」 and 「映画に見る」 are correct and natural phrases but they have different meanings. 「映画で見る」 is the simpler and more often used of the two. If you saw a certain thing, place, actor, etc. in a movie, you 映画で those things を見た. Those tangible objects just physically appeared in the movie and you saw them. 「映画に見る」 is less often used and ...


7

っきゃ is an informal spoken contraction of しか, a particle. やるっきゃない means やるしかない. The particle しか is always followed by a negative of some sort, either an explicit negative like ない or a predicate that is semantically negative such as だめだ or あるもんか. Taken together, しか+ない means something like "only; nothing but". It commonly follows nouns, but it can follow ...


7

売ってる is a contraction of 売っている. The い in ~ている verb endings is often dropped in casual speech.


7

These are called "sentence-final particles", or [終助詞]{しゅう・じょ・し}. There are many particles that can be used in this way; probably more than is acceptable for the scope of questions on this site. But some common ones are ね ("agreement"), か (question marker), わ (see this post), and な (prohibition).


7

There is a fairly big difference in meaning between 「~~てみる」 and 「~~ようとする」 that makes them virtually noninterchangeable for the better speakers/writers. 「~~てみる」 means "to try something out often for the first time (to find out how it is, how you like it, etc.)". 「~~ようとする」 means "to attempt to ~~ to achieve some kind of goal (however insignificant it may ...


6

Though it is fairly subtle, there is a difference between the two. It sounds a little more literary and/or formal when 「に」 is inserted than when it is not. There is no difference in meaning. Regarding the kanji vs. kana issue, the author could have chosen to use either for both as far as "correctness" is concerned. It seems to me that he made an ...


6

It comes from the Classical honorific verb 「[賜]{たま}ふ」, which means "to give (from one in a higher position to one in the lower)". The Modern counterpart is 「お[与]{あた}えになる」 or 「[下]{くだ}さる」. The 「ふ」 has become 「う」 over time as you probably know. This verb can be used as an honorific subsidiary verb following another verb. The Modern counterparts are ...


6

だ is a conclusive copula, etymologically a contraction of で+ある. It is used sentence-finally (hence the name "conclusive"). The uncontracted form is still available in Modern Japanese, but it's somewhat different in distribution and more formal. だ isn't actually a verb―it cannot stand alone and doesn't inflect like a verb. で+ある isn't a verb either, but it ...


6

Cleft sentences In linguistics, there's something called a cleft sentence. The basic idea is that you split a sentence into two parts in order to focus something:  1a. I met her that day.         (original sentence)   1b. It was her that [I met that day].  (clefted sentence) In this example, we split the sentence into "I met __ that day" and "her". ...


5

暇としたら is not grammatically correct. と here is related to the quoting particle and for quoting a sentence, you want a full sentence, here 暇だ hima da, giving 暇だとしたら hima da to shitara. In any case, I think the next two options are better choices of saying "if you have time / if you're free" 暇なら、ちょっと手伝ってください。 hima nara, chotto tetsudatte kudasai which ...


5

It seems you have learned to use 「[次第]{しだい}」 incorrectly somewhere. In saying "upon doing A", 「次第」 cannot follow directly the dictionary form or the past tense form of a verb like [食]{た}べる and 食べた in your sentences. The only verb form that can precede 「次第」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい}. For the verb 「食べる」, the 連用形 is 「食べ」. The tense of the sentence is NOT ...


5

なりな is an imperative form, with 〜な derived from 〜なさい. From 大辞泉: 2 《補助動詞「なさる」の命令形「なさい」の省略形》動詞・動詞型助動詞の連用形に付く。命令の意を表す。「早く行き―」「好きなようにやり―」 Be careful not to mix this up with なるな, which can itself have multiple meanings.


5

Subsidiary verbs, known as 補助動詞(ほじょどうし) in Japanese grammar, are a small set of verbs which have grammaticalized uses following 〜て. According to Martin†, these verbs include: いる・おる・いらっしゃる くる・まいる いく くれる・くださる しまう みる おく もらう・いただく ある・ございます やる・あげる みせる In these grammaticalized uses, they have several properties: They form a single ...


5

Yes, there was ara-nai. Quote from 『おあむ物語』 (c. 1665): くびにおはぐろを付て。おじやる。それはなぜなりや。むかしは。おはぐろ首は。よき人とて。賞翫した。それ故。しら歯の首は。おはぐろ付て給はれと。たのまれて。おじやつたが。くびもこはいものでは。あらない。その首どもの血くさき中に。寝たことでおじやつた。 From 『雑兵物語 おあむ物語』, page 134, 岩波書店 ISBN4-00-302451-6. While quite short, for those interested in language history, I'd like to point out that this text is particularly rich in ...


5

alexhatesmil's answer isn't wrong, but I just want to supplement regarding the も and what it's doing. So first, like the above の is a nominalizer. But that means you need something to connect の blocks to the rest of the sentence. You can do so with either は or も so you could say: 育ったのは京都です。 = The place I was raised is Kyoto. The も here replaces は ...


4

I'm not sure what you mean by your example sentence ... but as you state there's two ~そう constructions. These are normally called [伝聞]{でんぶん}, hearsay and [様態]{ようたい}, "seems like". According to nearly all the sources I can find, you cannot place a noun before the "seems like" 様態 one. And when you do so before the hearsay one, you need to put a だ. ...


4

なるべく is an adverb and the meaning is "as~as possible". なるべき is made up from a verb なる and a Japanese old auxiliary べし. The meaning of べし is 「~して当然だ。するのがよい。」 and so on. べき is a conjugation change of べし. For example, 明日はなるべく早く起きよう。( I will wake up as early as possible tomorrow). あなたは英語の先生になるべきだ。(You should/have to be an English teacher).


4

「なるベく」 should be considered a single word meaning you want to do something or want something done "as [...] as possible". For example, 「お問い合わせはなるべく短めにお願いします。」 would mean "Please keep any inquiries as short as possible.". The 「~べき」 suffix gets attached to verbs and means "should", so 「なるべき」 means "should become". For example,「なるべきようになった。」 means "It is as it ...


4

I will just form a few phrases with the particle 「きり」. 「[寝]{ね}たきり[老人]{ろうじん}」 = "(a) bedridden elderly person(s)" 「マリアは2[年前]{ねんまえ}[日本]{にほん}に[行]{い}ったきり[帰]{かえ}ってこない。」 = "Maria went to Japan 2 years ago and has not returned since." 「[窓]{まど}は[閉]{し}めっきりにしないで、たまには[開]{あ}けて[空気]{くうき}を[入]{い}れ[替]{か}えてね。」 = "Don't keep your windows shut all the time. Crack'em open ...


4

There are several issues with the translation you're suggesting there. Let's start with the English sentence: I am going to sleep tomorrow. The way you've parsed it to translate "going to" is taken to mean the motion verb "to go". But is sleep a place that you are going to? Unless, this is some really poetic English, I think less colloquially what ...


4

Japanese usually doesn't distinguish between singular and plural nouns. スポーツ is thus both singular and plural insofar as the singular/plural distinction even makes sense when talking about Japanese. There are several other words, which have a ツ at the end, like ドーナツ or ピーナッツ, but only end it a single T. I conjecture that ツ was chosen over ト (as in スポート, ...


4

[緊張]{きんちょう} by itself is a noun. The English word "nervous" is an adjective. To say the sentence in English, you would say "I was too nervous" or "I am too nervous." That makes the English construction a be-verb construction to apply the adjective to the subject. To accomplish the same sort of thing -- to apply 緊張 to a subject in Japanese, you say ...


4

緊張し is 連用形(ますform) of the verb "緊張する".


4

「緊張しすぎる」=「緊張」 + 「する」 +「すぎる」 In order to combine the two verbs する and すぎる, you need to change the first one する into its [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form). The 連用形 of the verb 「する」 is 「し」. Since 「する」 is the most often used verb in the language, 「し」 is very important and you will keep seeing it from now on. 緊張しすぎる = to get too nervous [飲]{の}みすぎる = to ...


4

That's a good question. I think that 滅多に doesn't modify ある by itself; I also think it doesn't directly modify ではない. Rather, I think that, at least for 滅多に, the whole phrase あるものではない pretends to be a negative of ある.


4

The difference between "verb + しようとする" and "verb + してみる" has been already answered. In short, the former is "try to do something," and the latter is "(actually) try doing something." ~を試す is used with various kinds of nouns. I don't know how to combine this with another verb (although you can say "試しに + verb + してみる"). It means "test/check" how something ...


4

The connective particle -te is derived from the continuative form of the lower bigrade perfective auxiliary -tu. Syntactic evolution The distribution of the auxiliary -tu (including its continuative form -te) was that it appeared after the continuative form of verbs (i.e., it did not appear after -ku in adjectives), which is a restriction all auxiliaries ...



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