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11

I think I don't have enough English vocabulary to express this nuance. So please let me try to explain this visually.   「~てきた」 First of all, 「~てきた」 expresses something in the past. If the speaker at present says 「~てきた」, s/he is talking about something which started sometime in the past and continued until now. Like the sentence, ...


9

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


8

The short answer is that the list would be somewhat long if not endless. Why so? Because whatever word a kid uses to address his/her own mom with, the mom will use that word to refer to herself with as if it were a first-person pronoun. You would almost need to forget English to appreciate this phenomenon in Japanese. (Your second paragraph from the ...


7

The verb-た + は + いい/よかった + contradictory conj. makes a set phrase roughly means "have/had successfully V-ed, but now/then (the problem is/was)...". It's one of a few idioms still allowed with direct nominalization (technically, 連体形準体法). You can rephrase it in regular modern grammar as ~たまではいいが or ~たのはいいが with meaning (almost) unchanged. While those modern ...


7

As a general rule, you cannot freely join two arbitrary adjectives like this. You can't say 長赤い nor 赤長い. Words like 細長い are sometimes called 複合形容詞 (compound adjective). Here are some examples: 青白【あおじろ】い (pale), 青【あお】い + 白【しろ】い 赤黒【あかぐろ】い (dark red, bloody), 赤【あか】い + 黒【くろ】い ずる賢【がしこ】い (sly), ずるい + 賢【かしこ】い 暑苦【あつくる】しい (muggy), 暑【あつ】い + 苦【くる】しい 面白【おもしろ】おかしい ...


6

~しようしようと思いながら(・・・が過ぎた・経ったetc.) 「意志形+意志形+と思いつつ・思いながら・・・」は、何度も「やらなければいけない。」と思ったり、自分にやるように言い聞かせたけれど、ついつい先延ばし(先送り・後回し)にして、時間が経ってしまった、という意味で使います。 例: 手紙を書こう書こうと思っているうちに、数年が経過した。 やろうやろうと思いつつ、なかなかできないダイエット。 宿題をしようしようと思っていても、ついつい後回しに・・・。


6

My first reaction upon reading this question, honestly, was to say to myself: "Why would you use English 'translations' of the Japanese phrase for its grammar analysis?" (I said that in Japanese, though.) 「世話{せわ}になる」 vs. "to receive a favor" or "to be looked after" "To receive a favor" is in active voice and "to be looked after" is in passive. To me ...


5

「日記{にっき}を書{か}いていたら(、)まさにお腹{なか}がすいてきた。」 does not mean: "I am certain to get hungry when I write in my diary." That English sentence suggests that the speaker always or habitually gets hungry when he writes in his diary, corect? The point of utterance can be anytime. The original sentence does not talk about what always/usually happens. It is ...


5

You can say: このグラフによると(orよれば)、カイロの人口はいつ(ごろ)から増えてきましたか? or このグラフによると(orよれば)、カイロの人口はいつ(ごろ)から増え始めましたか?


5

To me, at least, this question is two-fold. Grammatical past-tense in the purely technical sense. How native speakers actually use tenses when speaking while looking at pictures. In pure grammar: 「楽{たの}しそうだ」⇒「楽しそうだった」 and 「楽しそうです」⇒「楽しそうでした」 In reality: The vast majority of native speakers would not use either one of the two phrases above in ...


5

If we focus on the word order, normal Japanese relative clauses look pretty much similar to this hyphen-combined English phrase. That is, a large modifying clause can come before the modified word. large-fish-eating cat 大きな魚を食べる猫 not-technically-in-a-recession year 定義上は不況でない年 I-wanna-marry-you-kinda liking お嫁さんにしたいの好き So the Japanese ...


5

A lot has changed, IMO one good way is to compare newspapers from the days. This one is from the Meiji era: http://www.geocities.jp/tanaka_kunitaka/takeshima/saninshimbun/02.gif This one from during WW2: http://userdisk.webry.biglobe.ne.jp/005/523/32/N000/000/000/123528635262516412541.jpg This is from 1960: ...


4

Actually, it is natural to use お母さん in the situation. Although お母さん means mother, but the usage is different from English. In Japanese family, when you say お母さん, it does NOT mean my お母さん, but it is お母さん of the youngest child in the family. Here is why お母さん can refer to herself: お母さん of the youngest child in the family = お母さん of 伸 = herself This calling ...


4

The ては is short for 「~てはどう(ですか)?」, "How about doing ~~?", "Why don't you ~~? ~を買っては? = ~を買ってはどう(ですか)? ≒ ~を買ったら? = ~を買ったらどう(ですか)? The ては in ~~てはどうですか literally means "If~~" (≒~たら). (ては = the conjunctive particle て + the binding particle は). So ~てはどうですか literally means "How is it, if you do~~?" --> "How about doing~~?" It's definition #6 on goo辞書. ...


4

Conceptually speaking でもあった is what you get by trying to combine だった and も (as in "also"). だった is a contraction of であった and you have to use the uncontracted form in order to insert も after で. So でもあった means "it also was". (In the non-past tense, the same thing happens: "だ + も = でもある".)


4

I put that citation into the Wikipedia link. It came from a grammar book in Japanese published by Hitsuji Shobou. It lists Japanese cases, giving the particle that marks the case (or showing a zero crossed through for the nominative case), gives some Japanese names for the cases, and gives the English name for the cases. I think some confusion regarding the ...


4

なくちゃ is the short informal of なくてはいけません Well, なくちゃ is a contracted form of なくては. It has no "counterpart" for the part いけません in the formal sense. For your information, なくてはいけません -> なくちゃいけません -> なくちゃいけないの -> なくちゃだめ -> なくちゃ is epitomising the process of (possible) contraction, but you should be careful in resorting to the final (rightmost) step. If you ...


4

We do say 「考{かんが}え迷{まよ}う」, so the phrase certainly is nothing new or strange in itself. The real question, however, is whether or not it fits your particular context. 「考え迷う」 would often represent indecision, passivity and randomness. If that were the kind of thinking that you were involved in, it would be a reasonable word choice. If you had more ...


4

Translation is an art. It could help you learn a foreign language just as often as it could get in your way of understanding it. " This power is basically what the gods gave the to the Lower World Humans." is clearly not a literal translation of the original: 「この力{ちから}によって神様達{かみさまたち}は下界{げかい}の者達{ものたち}に持{も}ち上{あ}げられる。」 In the original, the subject ...


4

Most commonly, we would say: 「(Person)の肩{かた}に腕{うで}をかける」 or 「(Person)の肩に腕を回{まわ}す」 I actually could not think of another phrase.


4

The しまう here means to "completely" do something, or to do it to the end as you noted. However, the verb used here is 歩いていってしまった, which is 歩いて+いく and しまう, not 歩いて+いる. Also, unless you have more context to provide, I would not translate this as "he quickly walked", but "I". わたしが答える前に急いで川のふちへ歩いていってしまった。 → Before I answered, I quickly walked all the way ...


4

There is no contradiction. You are just seeing a phrase that is not there. There is no 「歩{ある}いている」 in 「歩いていってしまった」. There is, however, 「歩いていく」 in it. 「歩いていく」= "to go on foot", "to walk to", etc. can naturally be combined with 「しまう」. ⇒ "(He) already walked to (the river bank)." Finally, 「歩いてしまった」 could not be used as it makes no sense here. That means ...


3

I think you could say: (もし)それが分かっていたら/いれば、大会に出たのに。 ~~、大会に出ていたのに。 ~~、大会に出ていただろう(に)。 ~~、大会に出たんだけど(なぁ)。 ~~、大会に出ていたんだけど(なぁ)。 etc. Example: (もし)彼女の電話番号を知ってたら/れば、電話したのに。/してたのに。/してただろう(に)。/したんだけど(なぁ)。etc. (If I had known her phone number, I would have called her.) Compare: (もし)彼女の電話番号を知ってれば/たら、電話するのに。/するだろう(に)。/するんだけど(なぁ)。etc. (If I ...


3

Let's minimize the example. そこには私一人しかいなかった。 そこには私しかいなかった。 私しかいなかった。 私しかいない。 Here しか is actually a particle, i.e. a binding particle (係助詞 kakari-joshi) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_particles


3

有名な「ファミリア」は人員も豊富で・・・ Famous Familias have abundant human resources... If a Familia is famous, it already has a lot of staff, too. 例文: 高い楽器は、音もいい。 勉強のできるヤツは、スポーツもできる。 不細工な女は、性格も悪い。


3

The て(で) + いる(form) is not only used for ongoing actions. It also indicates states, as being married or possessing something: けっこんしています 車{くるま}をもっている In the situation of your question, it indicates that the person used to live somewhere (a past state).


3

「露店{ろてん}の準備{じゅんび}をしているホビットもいれば、~~~」 In this sentence, 「ば」 is used to express juxtaposition. Usually, one would expect it to be in the form of 「Aも~~ば、Bも~~だ/です/である」, but you are obviously not reading a very serious piece of writing and the author did not use the second 「も」. "there were a group of hobbits doing ~~ and a group of dwarfs doing ~~" ...


3

When you have to use? Well, any time you want to, as long as you mean "is it?" or "is that so?" ;-) So much for kidding. Do you want to differentiate between the two? They mean the same thing, with the latter revealing a bit of surprise/scepticism/unexpectedness etc, depending on the context.



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