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11

This sentence can technically mean both, but it usually (or almost always) means 1. To mean 2., we normally say 彼は来ないことを知りませんでした。 = He didn't know about the (someone else's) absense. because 彼 is the topic of the whole sentence. In other words, the use of が after 彼 more or less indicates that "彼がこない" is the relative clause which modifies こと.


9

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


9

The 捜していない of this sentence doesn't mean " Not looking for " but " I looked for but I couldn't find ". It's 捜して and (捜された人[the person who was looked for]が)いない.


9

「猫は蛇が現れたと思た.」 This sentence is good except for the last word and the non-Japanese period. Excellent use of 「は」 and 「が」. 「[猫]{ねこ}は[蛇]{へび}が[現]{あらわ}れたと[思]{おも}った。」 is the corect sentence. Other possibilities: 「猫はヘビが[出]{で}てきたのかと思った。」 「猫はヘビが出てきたと思った。」 「猫はヘビが現れたのかと思った。」


8

In some sense, you can say なら is a subtype of ば. なら is ならば in its full form, and although this word makes no sense in modern Japanese, it did in olden times. Classical ならば is but a regular inflection of なり + ば, which rightly corresponds to today's であれば (である + ば). So we can see that なら(ば) and ば don't really have differences in their meaning as conditionals, ...


8

They are not grammatical phrases. We just read the symbols verbatim like: [⁠1]{いち} [+]{たす} [⁠2]{に} [=]{は} [⁠3]{さん} It has nothing different than saying: [⁠1]{いち} [+]{プラス} [⁠2]{に} [=]{イコール} [⁠3]{さん} which is also commonly heard. Though we have both [+]{たす/プラス} and [−]{ひく/マイナス}, [×]{かける} and [÷]{わる} only ...


7

「~がある」という時の「ある」は、普通の動詞です。ところが、これを否定して「~がない」という時、この「ない」は形容詞です。 本来、動詞の否定は「書かない」「見ない」「来ない」のように、動詞の後ろに自立しない助動詞である「ない」をくっつけて作るものなので、「ある」の否定は「× あらない」となるはずなのですが、この形は標準日本語にはありません。日本語では、「× あらない」の意味を表すのに形容詞の「ない」を借りてきて使います。 これは補充形 (suppletive) といい、英語が "go" の過去形に "*go-ed" などではなく、もともと "wend" の過去形だった "went" を借りて使っているのと同じです。 ...


7

(A) 彼女は「笑っているあなたを見ている方がいい」と言った。 (B) 彼女は笑っている俺を見ている方がいいと言った。 (C) 彼女は笑っているあなたを見ている方がいいと言った。 (D) 彼女は「笑っている俺を見ている方がいい」と言った。[×] (A) is a typical 直接話法 (direct speech) sentence, and (B) is a typical 間接話法 (indirect speech) sentence. These are common both in English and Japanese, so they should be easy. (C) is the same as (A) except that it lacks the ...


7

Well, it appears to me that you're confused with the transitivity of 止まる. While the English word "stop" is used both transitively (as in "I stopped the taxi.") and intransitively (as in "Then the taxi stopped."), 止まる is always intransitive. The transitive version is 止める, and its potential form is 止められる. So 俺は止まらない just means "I don't stop" or "I will never ...


7

「ここまで[捜]{さが}していないとなると、[後]{あと}は[道場]{どうじょう}か[土蔵]{どぞう}ぐらいなものだろう。」 In the phrase 「捜していない」 in this context, It is Person A who is 捜している (searching), and it is Person B who is いない (not there). The above was your (only) mistake, but since it was a big one, it cost you the rest of the sentence. One more thing. 「ここまで」 here means more like "to this ...


7

Q1: Is there any difference between しだいで and 次第で, the former seeming a little softer and childish (if at all I can consider しだい as childish)? Sometimes writing in kanji is called 閉じる and writing in hiragana is called 開く. There are no strict official rules on how to write something in kanji or in kana. This decision is difficult even for native speakers ...


6

The sentence A: A: 宿題をして行かない生徒が多いです。 This almost always means "There are many students who go to school without doing their homework." (ie, they go to school anyway) In English, "Don't drink and drive" always means "Don't drive after you drink", not "Don't drink! Do drive!". Here "drink-and-drive" is treated as one set. And "Let's not go and see him" ...


6

Japanese verbs can be divided into three groups (godan verbs, ichidan verbs and irregular verbs). Nevertheless, the -ます form is not the best to tell them apart. Godan verbs (Group I) ends in く、ぐ、う、ぶ、る、ぬ、つ、む、す. Examples are: 行{い}く、泳{およ}ぐ、買{か}う、遊{あそ}ぶ、上{あ}がる、死{し}ぬ、待{ま}つ、読{よ}む、話{はな}す. There is some overlapping with verb ending in る.I mean that you have to ...


5

To break down: The main topic remains the same throughout the sentence: アメリカやヨーロッパなど6つの国 (lit. "six countries including America and Europe"). As I said elsewhere, this phrase seems a bit odd, but I think the author wanted to say "America and five European countries". And those 6つの国 serves as the subject of the following two verbs: 考えて and 続けていました。 So the ...


5

「ありまして」is just a really polite form of 「あって」. In the standard polite sentence, only the final verb is put into the polite -ます form, while the rest are in the regular dictionary forms: 朝ご飯を食べてシャワーを浴びました。 While often overkill, it is possible to put the other connecting verbs into the -ます form as well. The resulting「まして」form has the same function as the ...


5

「それでも、[俺]{おれ}はその[繊細]{せんさい}な[声]{こえ}が[誰]{だれ}のものかすぐに[気]{き}づく。」 "Does もの here refer to a voice?" Yes, it does. If so, would there be any difference between the above and the following? 「それでも、俺はその繊細な声が誰の声かすぐに気づく。」 There is no difference in meaning, but as you stated, repeating the same word only a few syllables after using it once like in ...


5

「お金がある。」というときの「ある」は、動詞です。(辞書) (「置いてある」「吾輩は猫である」というときの「ある」は、補助動詞です。 「昔々あるところに・・・」というときの「ある」は、連体詞です。) 「お金がない。」「おもしろくない。」というときの「ない」は、形容詞です。(辞書) 「食べない」というときの「ない」は、助動詞です。(辞書)


5

There are a few common ways to express that. 「[家]{いえ}は[学校]{がっこう}から5kmのところにあります。」 「家から学校まで(は)5kmあります。」 「家から学校まで(は)5kmです。」 「家は学校から5km[離]{はな}れています。」 「家は学校から5km離れたところにあります。」 It is hard to say which one is most common. You will hear them all. Note: I used "km" for the writing purpose. When you say these sentences out loud, you will read it as 「キロ」. From ...


5

If I take the part in bold letters in such a way as “She doesn’t show any interest in my addressing to her. So I got eager to let her quickly respond to me next time, and another next time.” — sorry for my poor English translation. お世辞にも楽しんでいた、と説明するのは憚られるぐらい can be translated as “It can by no means suggest that she was enjoying my call / solicitation. ...


5

Double contraction is taking place here. 「[忘]{わす}れようったって」= 「忘れようと言ったって」 which means: 「『忘れよう』と言っても」≒ 「『忘れよう』と言ったとしても」 = "Even if I/you/we said 'Let's forget!'" The last part of the sentence 「忘れられない」, of course, means "I/you/we can't (forget)." This construct, which uses the same verb twice, is very common. In its first ...


5

"Basically, is it permissible to insert any other modifiers between the relative clause and the noun it is modifying?" Yes, it is. In fact, it is commonly practiced as long as the modifiers are not excessively long and/or elaborate. If they were, it would often look/sound more reader- or listener-friendly to split the information into two separate ...


5

I wanted to add on to 変幻出没's post by clarifying the Group I (godan) verb exceptions - not only do they end in る, they all end in える and いる, but are actually Group I rather than Group II (ichidan). (Not to say that Japanese should be studied purely for the JLPT, but this information is relevant to your N4 studies: there are a finite number of Group I ...


5

First, Group III is the easiest to devide because 来{く}る and する are the only verbs that belong to it. These verbs have each irregular conjugation as you probably know. Then, if the verb ends with another than ''る'', it belongs to Group I. For example, you can tell which group 行{い}く belongs to, because it ends with ''く'' which is another than ''る''. Yes, ...


5

Here, "なんの” is an abbreviation for "なるの”. There are other cases where る is abbreviated as ん, like in "ここにいんの?” (for "ここにいるの?”). Since "気まずい" means something like "become embarrassed" or "feel awkward", you could translate that portion as: まあ、気まずくなんのだけはやめような Well, at least try not too feel so awkward Also, having multiple は's in a sentence is not ...


5

によって vs 次第で There are many ways to describe the difference between them. Let me give a picture first. X 次第 could be explained like "depending on how X acts/becomes", or typically the cause-effect relationship is unknown, or by chance, or the result that is brought about is not clear from the first impression of X or hard to explain beforehand, or the ...


5

楽しい is an い-adjective meaning "fun". In Japanese, there's nothing wrong with saying "I'm having fun." But generally you're not going to presume to know the psychological state of someone else. 楽しそう is formed by dropping い and adding そう, forming a な-type adjective meaning, "appearing to be having fun". So the sentence ...


5

Your sentence looks fine except that 思た should be [思]{おも}った. 


4

As you stated, 「やってられないよ」=「やっていられないよ」 More informally, you will often hear: 「やってらんないよ」 or even 「やってらんねえよ」 around Kanto (therefore, in fiction as well). It would probably be better to treat a common phrase like 「やって(い)られない」 as a set phrase rather than breaking it down to understand it. It simply means "I can't stand it anymore!" You are saying ...


4

Literally: You said to me (お前が...言ってきた), "I've grown some good strawberries (いいイチゴが出来た) so (から) buy them (買ってくれ)" ! The ~てくる in this 言ってくる reflects an action being done toward the speaker. You said 'to me'. You 'told me'. 買ってくれ is the imperative of 買ってくれる (~てくれる = doing the action for the benefit of the speaker) ...


4

As far as grammar, the following is the main difference: 「~~と」 must be followed by a verb phrase. When it is not, the verb has intentionally been left unmentioned. [手紙]{てがみ}に、「[好]{す}きです」と[書]{か}いた。(書いた is a verb.) 「~~という」 must be followed by a noun or a form of nominalization. 「こんにちは」というあいさつは、[夜]{よる}にはしません。(あいさつ is a noun) With this basic ...



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