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9

First, the の seen in the first sentence is a nominalizer, which converts verbs and adjectives into nouns. See this post for how it works, but in short, it is の that makes it mean "small(er) one" here. Second, より ("than") doesn't only attach to nouns but to verbs and adjectives too. It also doesn't change the meaning the former word has. Third, 方 accepts ...


8

This sentence says "(I) will be fired in no more than 10 days." (time)と待たずに is a common set phrase which literally means "without waiting for (time)". This と is not "if" nor "then". The role of と here corresponds to the sixth entry of デジタル大辞泉's definition. 6 (数量を表す語に付き、打消しの表現を伴って)その範囲以上には出ない意を表す。…までも。「全部で一〇〇円―かからない」「一〇〇キロ―走らなかった」


7

This 〜た is the perfect, not past; that is, it's indicating a time before some reference time, rather than a time before speech time: 傘を持っていったほうがいい。 Lit. "Having brought an umbrella would be better." That said, I don't think native speakers actually have such a complicated model (of comparing possible future worlds, one of which where you have brought ...


7

This is basically, but certainly not exclusively, Western-Japan speech. 「よう」 = 「よく」 = "well" or "very well" in this context. It can also mean "often". This has nothing to do with 「ように」 or 「ような」, which means "like ~~", "as ~~", etc. 「わからん」 = 「わからない」 = "I don't get it.", "I don't understand.", etc. 「~~なんて」 = "stuff/thing/something like ~~". Think ...


6

「[写真]{しゃしん}があった[方]{ほう}があなたがどんな[人]{ひと}なのかわかるし、フレンドも[作]{つく}りやすくなります。」 is a perfectly normal sentence with a fairly simple sentence structure. It says "Condition A will bring Result #1 and Result #2". Condition A:「写真があった方が」 Result #1:「あなたがどんな人なのかわかる」 Result #2:「フレンドも作りやすくなる。」 In 「写真があった方が」, 「方」 is used to compare (implicitly) two situations. ...


6

No, they are not. The content inside 「 」 is often not the exact same as what was actually said. There exist a few patterns when it is not. 1) Summarized statement: When the author thinks that the actual statement is too long and/or it contains unnecessary parts for the reader, the author may trim it a little without changing the meaning or nuance of ...


6

In formal Japanese, this is the standard 連用形. It's used in place of て form of verbs when linking. It's usage in 敬語{けいご} actually goes beyond this, with these suffixes also helping form verbs. In the context of your quote, both are replaceable with て form in everyday speech. The general rule being to take the ます stem, remove this, and replace as necessary ...


6

Nine times out of ten, this sentence is based on 「あきらめたら、そこで試合終了ですよ」, which is a famous line from SLAM DUNK, a manga series featuring basketball: And the "official" English translation is "When you give up, that's when the game is over." This phrase is almost like a proverb, and used frequently at least by native Japanese speakers, even when they're ...


5

どんなに寒くても...(No matter how cold it is...) is correct, but どんなに寒いでも is incorrect. Maybe it was a typo of どんなに寒い日でも or something. You form the phrase this way: with i-adjectives: 「どんなに/どれほど+連用形(~く)+て+も」 eg. 「どんなに忙しくても」「どんなに古くても」 with na-adjectives: 「どんなに/どれほど+連用形(~で)+も」 eg. 「どんなにきれいでも」「どんなに好きでも」 with nouns: 「どんなに/どれほど+(adjective)+noun+で+も」 eg. ...


5

You are making a mistake lots of people make – you are trying to think about what your sentence will look like in English. You might do this with most European languages, but you definitively can't do this with Asian languages. So as you said, your first sentence is correct: 金曜日にケーキを食べる. Basically, all you did in your second sentence was indicate that ...


5

作業 is closer to tasks or procedures, which can be 'finished' in a few minutes or a few days. 仕事 refers to both small tasks and lifelong vocations. If you want to ask someone's occupation, you can say "あなたの仕事は何ですか?" but not "あなたの作業は何ですか?" (well, let's forget about honorific expressions for now). When you look at a calendar and want to check what you have to ...


5

Edited in bold font An action in non-past tense in a なら clause is to succeed that of the main clause, and if you use it wrongly, people will misunderstand which happens before and which after. Past tense in なら clauses stands for if it's true or not. As long as you use なら correctly, たら is enough versatile to replace ~と and ~ば. You can't use たら for actions ...


5

There's no implicit order which word you should use for stacking sections. You can (basically) freely choose linking words for you additional sections. A non-exhaustive list is: 次{つぎ}に, 更{さら}に(は), そして, それから, その上{うえ}(に), この上{うえ}(に), 加{くわ}えて, それに加{くわ}え(て), 他{ほか}に(も), また, 並{なら}びに, および, それだけでなく, のみならず etc. etc. Variations for "firstly" and "finally" are: ...


5

「Verb + に(or にも) + Same Verb in potential form + ず」 is a very common phrase pattern that expresses one's inability or hesitation to perform the action described by the verb. See 一-2 in: https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%AB%E3%82%82-592921#E3.83.87.E3.82.B8.E3.82.BF.E3.83.AB.E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.B3.89 「[切]{き}り[出]{だ}すに切り出せず、[今日]{きょう}まできてしまいました。」 ...


5

Hey I have lived in Japan for almost 10 years and have been a student of Japanese for 15 years. Someone has something → (誰か)は(何か)を持っている Someone has someone → (誰か)は(誰か)がいる Something has something → (何か)に(何か)がある For the examples you gave, you would say: 私は本を3冊持っている 私は息子3人がいる この部屋に窓がある 持つ literally means 'to hold' so when you use it in ...


5

彼はぜひ日本人です。 is not acceptable, I'm afraid. You use ぜひ this way: ぜひ参加してください。 'please' (for invitation/request) ぜひ参加させていただきます。 'by all means' (when accepting offer) 彼はきっと日本人です。 sounds fine. 'I believe he's Japanese' / 'I'm sure he's Japanese'. 彼は必ず日本人です。 is not acceptable. 必ず is used this way: 必ず来ます。 'without fail' (for future action) 寝る前に必ず歯を磨く。 'never fail ...


4

か can follow である in subordinate clauses. For example, 真実であるかは不明。Whether it is true or not is unknown. (You can also say it as 真実かどうかは不明。) か can also follow だ in subordinate clauses, as @snailboat says. For example, なぜだかわからない。I don't know why.


4

People would figure out what you mean and forgive you because you're only a learner of Japanese, but you may get a few strange looks for some sentences. The commenter's research study in your cited question, attributed to a study done in 1989 by Shinji Sanada also shows もっと早く{起きると/起きれば/起きたら}よかった。 I should have woken up earlier. Tokyo: 4% と; 94% ば; 2% たら ...


4

図書館でいろいろな教室でできないことができる。 This is not grammatically wrong, but a little hard to understand. いろいろな教室でできないこと sounds like 'things you can't do in various classrooms' (The いろいろな looks like modifying 教室). If you mean 'In the library, you can do various things you can't do in the classroom' then you can say 図書館では、教室で(は)できないことがいろいろできる。 or ...


4

「[連体形]{れんたいけい} of Verb or Adjective + こと + adjective expressing an extreme degree」 「連体形」 means the attributive form. 「こと」 nominalizes the preceding verb or adjective and, at the same time, emphasizes its meaning. こと = 事, but hiragana is preferred for this usage these days.


4

The suffix た does not automatically imply past tense. In this free online dictionary, for instance, it lists 8 different meanings /usages of 「た」. https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%9F-556028#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC.E4.B8.89.E7.89.88 Sure, you may not be able to read it, but it would at least give you a good sign that you should forget about ...


4

They are also treated as 連用形. More specifically i-type are called 連用形のイ音便. Sometimes 音便形 is used, but there are no official name. References 音便形 in デジタル大辞泉 動詞の音便(おんびん) イ音便・撥音便(はつおんびん)・促音便(そくおんびん) 音便 - Wikipedia (Note: This article uses 動詞のテ・タ形 for conveniece sake.)


4

Basically, 疎{おろ}か is an adjective (形容動詞) so it has to "decorate" a noun. In Japanese a nominalized sentence just behave like a noun so both of your sentences are grammatical and make sense. But their meaning is slighly different. 漢字{かんじ}の読{よ}み方{かた}はおろか,... Not to mention the way kanji are read, ... Whereas, 漢字{かんじ}を読{よ}むのはおろか,... Not to ...


4

You are on the right track. In this case, 「ある」 and 「ひ」 should be regarded as two independen words rather than 「あるひ」 split into two parts. 「ある」, all by itself, can mean "one ~~" or "a certain ~~" (and it is used at the beginning of virtually every children's story.) 「ある つめたい かぜの ふく ひ」 is a relative clause (not a sentence) in which both 「ある」 and ...


4

In this case, 「つめたい かぜの ふく」 is a noun modifier(1)(2) for 日. Basically, the verb clause the precedes the noun modifies it in a similar way to "that" in English. For example (from the references above): ボブは、いつも勉強する人だ。 = Bob is an always-does-studying person. = Bob is a person who always studies. In the same way, 「つめたい かぜの ふく」 is modifying 日. ...


4

けど is the short form of けれども, which could be written け(れ)ど(も), because all of けれども, けれど, けども, けど are used. けども is what, in my experience, is often used in a half formal, half informal setting. It is more refined than けど, but not quite as stiff as けれども.


3

It's not clear based off the context which the person asking the question means, due to simple ambiguity. By the rest of the conversation, it may be more clear, but it's not inherently obvious if, say, they tried starting a conversation with "夏休みに国へ帰りますか", if they are talking about when you want to return to your country, or were asking what you're doing ...


3

Most textbooks note that using か to mark two noun alternatives, the last one can be omitted. You are probably talking about something like this: ステーキか、すしにします。 / ステーキか、すしを食べます。 (I'll have either steak or sushi.) However, you cannot omit the second か in a sentence like below, even though か marks two noun alternatives: ...


3

Your assumption is right. That ばかり was originally used in the form of 目もくらまんばかり, which meant "so much that you are only escaping being dazzled" → "so much that you are nearly dazzled". In that sense, it's interchangeable as you said. And, if there's a difference from ほど・くらい at all, it could be that ばかり's version is a rhetorical expression and thus, could ...


3

The way I like to explain euphonic changes (音便) is by modeling it in terms of "repairs":  /kakite/   ⇓  {devoice of /i/} × /ka[kt]{LL}e/   ⇓  {/k/+C sequence repaired to /i/+C}  /kaite/ Namely, a vowel devoices, and then some sort of repair needs to happen due to what sounds like a consonant-consonant sequence (which are illegal). Depending on ...



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