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8

The short answer is that the list would be somewhat long if not endless. Why so? Because whatever word a kid uses to address his/her own mom with, the mom will use that word to refer to herself with as if it were a first-person pronoun. You would almost need to forget English to appreciate this phenomenon in Japanese. (Your second paragraph from the ...


6

As a general rule, you cannot freely join two arbitrary adjectives like this. You can't say 長赤い nor 赤長い. Words like 細長い are sometimes called 複合形容詞 (compound adjective). Here are some examples: 青白【あおじろ】い (pale), 青【あお】い + 白【しろ】い 赤黒【あかぐろ】い (dark red, bloody), 赤【あか】い + 黒【くろ】い ずる賢【がしこ】い (sly), ずるい + 賢【かしこ】い 暑苦【あつくる】しい (muggy), 暑【あつ】い + 苦【くる】しい 面白【おもしろ】おかしい ...


6

The verb-た + は + いい/よかった + contradictory conj. makes a set phrase roughly means "have/had successfully V-ed, but now/then (the problem is/was)...". It's one of a few idioms still allowed with direct nominalization (technically, 連体形準体法). You can rephrase it in regular modern grammar as ~たまではいいが or ~たのはいいが with meaning (almost) unchanged. While those modern ...


5

A lot has changed, IMO one good way is to compare newspapers from the days. This one is from the Meiji era: http://www.geocities.jp/tanaka_kunitaka/takeshima/saninshimbun/02.gif This one from during WW2: http://userdisk.webry.biglobe.ne.jp/005/523/32/N000/000/000/123528635262516412541.jpg This is from 1960: ...


5

To me, at least, this question is two-fold. Grammatical past-tense in the purely technical sense. How native speakers actually use tenses when speaking while looking at pictures. In pure grammar: 「楽{たの}しそうだ」⇒「楽しそうだった」 and 「楽しそうです」⇒「楽しそうでした」 In reality: The vast majority of native speakers would not use either one of the two phrases above in ...


4

The ては is short for 「~てはどう(ですか)?」, "How about doing ~~?", "Why don't you ~~? ~を買っては? = ~を買ってはどう(ですか)? ≒ ~を買ったら? = ~を買ったらどう(ですか)? The ては in ~~てはどうですか literally means "If~~" (≒~たら). (ては = the conjunctive particle て + the binding particle は). So ~てはどうですか literally means "How is it, if you do~~?" --> "How about doing~~?" It's definition #6 on goo辞書. ...


4

Actually, it is natural to use お母さん in the situation. Although お母さん means mother, but the usage is different from English. In Japanese family, when you say お母さん, it does NOT mean my お母さん, but it is お母さん of the youngest child in the family. Here is why お母さん can refer to herself: お母さん of the youngest child in the family = お母さん of 伸 = herself This calling ...


4

Most commonly, we would say: 「(Person)の肩{かた}に腕{うで}をかける」 or 「(Person)の肩に腕を回{まわ}す」 I actually could not think of another phrase.


4

The しまう here means to "completely" do something, or to do it to the end as you noted. However, the verb used here is 歩いていってしまった, which is 歩いて+いく and しまう, not 歩いて+いる. Also, unless you have more context to provide, I would not translate this as "he quickly walked", but "I". わたしが答える前に急いで川のふちへ歩いていってしまった。 → Before I answered, I quickly walked all the way ...


4

There is no contradiction. You are just seeing a phrase that is not there. There is no 「歩{ある}いている」 in 「歩いていってしまった」. There is, however, 「歩いていく」 in it. 「歩いていく」= "to go on foot", "to walk to", etc. can naturally be combined with 「しまう」. ⇒ "(He) already walked to (the river bank)." Finally, 「歩いてしまった」 could not be used as it makes no sense here. That means ...


3

I think you could say: (もし)それが分かっていたら/いれば、大会に出たのに。 ~~、大会に出ていたのに。 ~~、大会に出ていただろう(に)。 ~~、大会に出たんだけど(なぁ)。 ~~、大会に出ていたんだけど(なぁ)。 etc. Example: (もし)彼女の電話番号を知ってたら/れば、電話したのに。/してたのに。/してただろう(に)。/したんだけど(なぁ)。etc. (If I had known her phone number, I would have called her.) Compare: (もし)彼女の電話番号を知ってれば/たら、電話するのに。/するだろう(に)。/するんだけど(なぁ)。etc. (If I ...


3

The て(で) + いる(form) is not only used for ongoing actions. It also indicates states, as being married or possessing something: けっこんしています 車{くるま}をもっている In the situation of your question, it indicates that the person used to live somewhere (a past state).


3

In addition to @l'électeur's answer, we also commonly say 肩【かた】を組【く】む when two or more people put their arms on one another's shoulders.


3

「露店{ろてん}の準備{じゅんび}をしているホビットもいれば、~~~」 In this sentence, 「ば」 is used to express juxtaposition. Usually, one would expect it to be in the form of 「Aも~~ば、Bも~~だ/です/である」, but you are obviously not reading a very serious piece of writing and the author did not use the second 「も」. "there were a group of hobbits doing ~~ and a group of dwarfs doing ~~" ...


2

Excellent question! Original:「[V酵素]{ブイこうそ}は、年{とし}を経{へ}て強力{きょうりょく}になったヴァンパイアほど高純度{こうじゅんど}のものを持{も}っています。」 Subject:「(年を経て強力になった)ヴァンパイア」 Verb:「持っています」 「V酵素」 is the topic, but not the subject of this sentence. ← You thought it was the subject, right? Yours:「V酵素は、年を経て強力になったヴァンパイアほど高純度のものになる。」 This sentence is actually close to being correct, using ...


2

彼の情熱的な抱擁で彼女は息がつけなかった。 Why is 息 marked here as the object (assuming が is used here as an object marker)? It's because of the potential form つける. The つける(吐ける) is the potential(可能形) form of the transitive verb つく(吐く). For example: 「英語を話す」--> 「英語を話せる」「英語が話せる」「英語が話せない」 「目を離す」--> 「目を離せない」「目が離せない」 「単位を取る」--> 「単位を取れない」「単位が取れる」「単位が取れない」 「論文を書く」--> ...


2

The -ている, is as you quoted jisho.org, is used to mean it is an ongoing action or a state. That being said, when いる is conjugated to the past (いました), you are indicating that it was ongoing (or in the case of states, was the state of being) in the past. As 住んでいる{すんでいる}, it would mean you are currently living (in a location). Ex: 私{わたし}はニューヨークに住んでいます. I am ...


2

言えれば would mean "If I could say" since the れ in there indicates the potential form. (Obviously the pronoun I could be replaced with he/she/it/whatever as appropriate in context.) I would translate 助けてくださいなんて言えれば as "If I could say 'please help me'" or "if only I could ask for help".


2

I think the accepted answer by dainichi to this question answers it pretty well: It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano ...


2

「(3歳ぐらいの男のお子さん)をお見かけのお客様」 means like "Some guest who saw (an about 3 years old boy)" So 「3歳ぐらいの男のお子さんをお見かけのお客様、最寄りの売り場までご連絡ください。」 means like "Some guest who saw an about 3 years old boy, please contact your near counter." The sentence before お客様 expresses the target of the announcement, and later, the announcement asks the guests to contact if ...


2

In the first place, "hanbaaga-ga" as in "hanbaaga-ga hoshii" is not the subject. So it doesn't mean a burger is wanted. Both the subject and the object of "hoshii" are indicated by ga, in other words, when you express "bobu-wa hanbaaga-ga hoshii" without any topicalized elements, it becomes "bobu-ga hanbaaga-ga hoshii". So, "who wants a burger" can be ...


2

Maybe the particle you chose, に (ni), is not quite right. ボブにハンバーガーが欲しい (bobu-ni hanbaaga-ga hoshii) and ハンバーガーがボブに欲しい (hanbaaga-ga bobu-ni hoshii) would mean something like "(I) want a burger for Bob". It's I or someone else, not Bob, that is the implicit wanter, and the wanter likes to give the burger to Bob. Of course we usually don't say things like ...


2

This 'instead' was kindly inserted by the translator because the speaker did not use も (=also, as well) in the original sentence. It's the absence of も that implies the speaker is suggesting buying something else instead. 靴(を)買うならTシャツも買っては? If you're going to buy shoes, why don't you buy a T-shirt as well? 靴(を)買うならTシャツ(を)買っては? If you're going to ...


1

In your examples, the 〜て form of the verb is to make it a command. I'm not sure if you've already come across this grammar point before, but to turn a verb into its command form, you convert the verb into the 〜て form and add ください after it. For example, 持つ (to hold) → 持って下さい (please hold ~) In casual conversation, it's common to remove the ください, and ...


1

たり is used to mean 'do things such as ...' e.g. ケーキをたべたり、ビールを飲んだりします。 I do things like eat cake and drink beer. It is a non-exhaustive list of things that the person does. On the other hand the pre-masu/combining form of the verb is just a more formal version of the て form and is used more often in writing than in speech. It can usually be ...


1

Basically する verbs are a combination of する with a noun that has an inherent meaning of an action/state - almost always a Chinese compound or single character. The する is really nothing more than the "Japanese agent" of that Chinese noun - taking care of the tenses, endings, etc. that the the kanji itself can't express. Since the kanji part already has the ...


0

Without する the compound becomes a noun. Let's compare: その絵は完成だ。 That picture is complete. その絵は完成した。 That picture is completed OR I completed that picture. Another quick example: 明日は遠足だ It's our school trip tomorrow 明日は遠足する tomorrow we will go on (= do) our school trip.


1

The てform of して here is acting as a way to join the two clauses. 変な音がする and 止まらない The 止まらない is nothing special. Just the negative tense of 止まる so we can interpret it as don't/won't stop. There is no element of "desire, choice,willingness, consent."


1

行く means "go", 出る means "leave, depart" and 出かける means "leave this place for some errand to do elsewhere". So 川へせんたくしに行く and 川へせんたくに出かける (as well as 川へせんたくしに出かける) make hardly any difference, but you wouldn't be likely to say 地獄{じごく}へ出かける unless you're something like "underworld detective".



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