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9

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


8

The best English phrase that I could think of that would retain the nuance of the original is: "whether they live or die". You do not need to translate 「にしても」 twice just because it is used twice in the original. What is more important is how things sound in the target language. The first 5 characters 「人間なんて」 already tells us that the speaker looks ...


6

When you say 「A [対]{たい} B」, the balance between the words on both sides of the 「対」 is of utmost importance. Both word A and word B MUST have the same level of formality and phonetic impact. Ideally speaking, the two words should be both Sino loanwords, both Japanese-origin words, or both katakana words. Using this technique will help the Japanese ...


6

First, I must say that "it has been decided that ~~" is a highly overrated translation of 「~~ことになる」 among J-learners. Truth is that that is not what it means even half the time. 「あすで1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。」 means "It will have ended up raining a whole week." It has already been raining for 6 straight days now and the weather forecast says that it will rain ...


6

Generally speaking, ~として is used for "as a". You use a noun before として. For example: As a friend... 友{とも}だちとして...


6

First, I assure you that your translation is already good. You understand the sentence structure perfectly. One might question if your word choices of "disturb" and perhaps "this" are best, but it is good that you understand that 「そうして淡々と話す俺」 is a relative clause. If you had, as some would, placed a "mental comma" after the そうして, it would have cost you a ...


5

You need to distinguish spelling and pronunciation. You do this all the time in English: you're aware that two ("one plus one") and too ("also") have the same pronunciation even though they're spelled differently. Likewise, in Japanese, keep in mind that the particle を is always spelled を, even though its basic pronunciation is the same as お. を and ...


5

Side question first, so I will not forget. Whenever you see a 「上」 or 「下」 in an explanation in a Japanese dictionary, "Think Vertical" as in "vertical writing" and take the words 「上」 and 「下」 literally. 「上」 refers to what precedes something and 「下」, what folllows. Thus, 「上に来る副詞」 refers to 「よく」 and 「どうして」, respectively, in the example expressions. On to ...


4

There are a few verbs that do this. It's not just 思う but also 考える. I tried coming up with an English parallel but after a few goes decided that they don't work. The source difference as I see it is that the Japanese language has a stricter account of philosophy of mind that works from the idea that we don't have access to the thoughts and feelings of ...


4

This is a remnant of the Classical Japanese form named 「[命令形]{めいれいけい}の[放任法]{ほうにんほう}」. 命令形 means "imperative form", 放任、”noninterference”, "permission", etc. and 法, "rule". Native speakers, young or old, still use the 命令形の放任法 on a daily basis, but very few Japanese-learners seem to be able use it actively. In short, the nuance of this form is "Do as you ...


4

A は B ではないか is asking "isn't A (=) B?", and here used as a (stylized) rhetorical question, i.e. meaning "I think that A is B". Since A と思いますが is "I think that A, but ...", we are also dealing with a an ellipsis (assuming you're quoting the whole sentence). In any case, both figures of speech are very commonly used in Japanese. Unfortunate for a ...


4

「だらけ」 has the connotation of being "all over the place" or being "riddled with" . The speaker that chooses this word wants to imply that he's not happy that there's so much of .     「ここは男性だらけやんか!」     This has the idea of "There's nothin' but friggin' dudes up in this place!" i.e. "sausagefest" 「ばかり」 can be simply thought of as "only" in kind of a ...


4

One cannot combine 「[慣]{な}れる」 with 「なる」. 「[寒]{さむ}くなる」 is fine because 「寒い/寒く」 is an adjective. 「慣れる」 is a verb. To express "to get accustomed to", you can say: 「慣れてくる」 and 「慣れていく」. No other forms could express the "get" part of "to get accustomed to" nearly as closely as these two. 「[大学生活]{だいがくせいかつ}にも慣れてきました。」 = "I am getting used to my ...


4

I think the として in 固定資産として means "as" (meaning 3) 必要として is the て-form of 必要とする(to need; to require). (or, 必要としている is the progressive form of 必要とする.)


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

"(Verb phrase A in た- form) + ように + (Verb phrase B)" means: "(Someone) does/did/will B as if he did A (or A happened)" 少し[拗]{す}ねたように[頬]{ほほ}を[膨]{ふくら}らませる = "(Someone) puffs out his cheeks as if he got sulky" [諦]{あきら}めたように小さく[頷]{うなず}いた = "(Someone) nodded lightly as if he gave up" [思]{おも}い[切]{き}ったように口を[開]{ひら}いた = "(Someone) spoke out as if he got up ...


4

かわいがる comes from かわいい + がる, but is almost a word in its own right. 形容詞 → 語幹 + がる = feel like / act like 形容詞 寒がる・暑がる・偉がる … かわいがりたい comes from かわいがる + たい 動詞 → 連用形 + たい = want (to do) したい・行きたい・帰りたい … 気持ちを抑える control one's feelings 気持ちを/が抑えられない unable to control one's feelings 桃香を可愛がりたい want to fawn over Momoka ⇒ (Someone) can't resist the desire to fawn ...


3

According to a dictionary... 1. ならびに ならびに ([接続]{せつぞく}): [二]{ふた}つの[事柄]{ことがら}を[結]{むす}び[付]{つ}けて,[並列]{へいれつ}の[関係]{かんけい}にあることを[表]{あらわ}す。および。また。 (From Daijirin Dictionary) Translation: ならびに (Conj.): Used to express that two things are connected and linguistically parallel. Similar to および and また. 2. かつ かつ ([副]{ふく}): ...


3

If you are referring to whether a person has ever done something, then the 「x ~たことがあります」form is what you need. Interpreted, it means "to have an instance wherein (subject) did (x)". ヨークシャープディング食べたことある? / を食べた ことが ありますか? These ask if the other person has had the experience of eating Yorkshire pudding. However, as you are probably aware, the first form ...


3

A bare ます-stem can be used to join sentences together, much like the て-form. Another valid way to render this sentence would be as follows: オオカミのことばに従って、森に行った。 In both cases it translates to "In accordance with the wolf's words, [I] went to the woods."


3

There is virtually no difference in meaning but there is a slight difference in nuance, therefore, in actual usage. Using 「どのような批判があろう + が」 could make you sound a bit more defensive and/or excited about your own opinion being presented than when using 「どのような批判があろう + と」. The latter would help show your composure as an author better than the former. Without ...


3

If you don't care about who is doing the thinking, then why not make it much more natural and use the passive voice? ボブさんによれば、株価が高いと思われているそうだ。 According to Bob, the stock price is thought to be high. Also do you mean: 株【かぶ】価【か】 stock price or 物価【ぶっか】 cost of living? If you want to omit the subject you do need context I'm afraid. A: ...


3

[裏切]{うら・ぎ}り is just the noun form of the verb [裏切]{うら・ぎ}る. So to describe a backstabbing person (backstabber), you can just say [裏切]{うら・ぎ}る(者{もの}・人{ひと}). Although there is also the special compound noun [裏切]{うら・ぎ}り者{もの} for the same meaning. There's a slight usage nuance that I can't quite put into words, but it's not so big that it's something to worry ...


3

Tenses generally do not correspond well between English and Japanese. Japanese-speakers usually just use the present tense to talk about near future events and we could always tell from the context. Natural-sounding Japanese sentences for "You will not feel good if you eat such food." would be:  「そんなもの[食]{た}べてると[元気]{げんき}になれないよ。」  ...


2

Your final question is different from the one in the title. First, ~たち is not built-in. The noun 友 can appear on its own. See here for more information. Therefore, the answer to your last question is no. I want to mention though that ~たち, or suffixes such as ~ら, ~ども, etc. do not mark the plural in the strict sense, but rather an associative. An ...


2

The sense of both verbs is active rather than passive sense. In that case "live or die as they might" could be a closer interpretation. It may refer to the fact that humans barely live longer than a hundred years despite their best efforts, and nothing that they do lasts more than a century (thus the "die as they might" part). As for 「~にしても」, it might make ...


2

It might help to think about what's going on with 「ておく」 and 「とく」 in romaji. " 勉強 shiteoku " The we just drop the 'e' ('cause we're cool kids)... " 勉強 shitoku " The same kind of thing happens all the time with 「い」"i" 「何食べている?」 becomes 「何たべてる?」 (just drop the 「い」) "Nani tabeteiru?" becomes "Nani tabeteru?" (Just drop the 'i') This can seem more ...


1

You can't use 「がる」in the following context: 「風邪気味だ」= "I feel like I'm getting a cold" (The situation appears as if someone's getting a cold.) You can't use 「気味」in the following context: 「なにか甘いもの食べたがっている」 = "He looks like he wants something sweet" (The situation appears as if somebody wants something sweet to eat.) The speaker can use both phrases to ...


1

I am not sure about the actual rules, but normally you use だらけ when saying about something in the negative context, such as ゴミだらけ. On the other hand ばかり is more neutral, such as お菓子ばかり。 Also, there's third word, ずくめ which is used mostly in the positive context.



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