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9

側 is read がわ in this context and it means "standpoint", "side", "party", etc., all of which amounts to "person(s) involoved" in the action described just before the 側. [面接]{めんせつ}をする[側]{がわ} means "interviewer(s)" 面接をされる側 means "interviewee(s)" Thus, 「[未経験者]{みけいけんしゃ}を面接をする側の気持ちを考えてみる」 means: "Try(ing) to consider the feelings of those ...


9

Generally speaking:   〜と links to a following verb (or other predicate)   〜との links to a following noun (or noun equivalent) That's generally what の does—indicates a relationship to a following noun:  海へ 行く  The particle へ links 海 to the following verb 行く  海への道   The particle の links 海へ to the following noun 道 In English, we use word order ...


9

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


8

「って」 is the only correct (and possible) answer here. When someone asks the question 「ねえ, 田中さん(   )どんなひと?」, the asker should basically have no knowledge of Tanaka, correct? That is where the quotative 「って」 comes into place --- "this Tanaka guy", "this guy called --- what was his name, Tanaka?", etc. Using 「が」 is very unnatural (I would call it plain ...


7

It should be clear from a direct translation of the whole sentence: ほんの一、ニ分のやりとりであったであろうが、いかに屈託のない若い人たちの闊達さがさわやかであった。 The exchange was probably no more than* one or two minutes but the generosity of those** carefree young people was so refreshing. Notes *ほんの really means "just" but "no more than" feels more natural so I've taken a little literary ...


7

I think you're just missing what the source is referring to. The part where it says It is also used to describe a habitual action and a condition. Is referring to this: (2) The present progressive: the ~ te form iru or imasu (formal) So it's not referring to the て form but the ている/ています construction. So for example, 私はひまなとき本を読んでいます。 Note also ...


7

Some English adjectives have no corresponding Japanese i-adjective or na-adjective, and you have to use noun- or verb-based expressions in Japanese. Examples I can think of are: green, orange, pink, gray, etc. (Colors in Japanese. Despite the article, 茶色い is also a perfect i-adjective just like 黄色い) それは緑色だ。ピンク色の紙。灰色の猫。 (Incorrect: ピンク色な紙。灰色い猫。) ...


7

There are three particles in Japanese which are typically spelled differently than they're pronounced: は (pronounced wa rather than ha) を (pronounced o rather than wo) へ (pronounced e rather than he) Although you're hearing it correctly, in this case it is actually the particle を, marking a direct object: (わたしは)ケーキを たべたい This particle comes ...


6

「公園に行ったならば、何しようか?」 is unnatural, and the main reason is that 「~しよう」 means "Let's ~", referring to something someone is actually going to do right now or in the near future. Instead, expressions like 「何をしますか?」 or 「何をして/どうやって過ごしますか?」 will do. Basically this type of question is asked without any if-clause: いつも公園では何をして過ごしますか? ふだん公園ですることは何ですか? When you ...


6

Your sentence is grammatically correct. について is a good way to say "about" in many situations. However, in this case I think it would be more natural to say 今、東京から京都まで行く方法を調べています。 I'm [ looking up / reading about ] how to get from Tokyo to Kyoto. 調べる is often translated to "investigate, examine", but it's a very common word and I think "look up, read ...


6

For example, Do x whilst y [明]{あか}るいうちに(≒明るい[間]{あいだ}に)[帰]{かえ}ってきなさい。(Come back while it's bright) [温]{あたた}かいうちに(≒温かい間に)食べなさい。(Eat while it's warm) 子どもが[寝]{ね}ているうちに(≒寝ている間に)[洗濯]{せんたく}します。(I do the laundry while the child is sleeping) can be rephrased: Do x before ys situation changes [暗]{くら}くならないうちに(≒暗くなる[前]{まえ}に)帰ってきなさい。(Come back before it ...


6

It's used for politeness. Here's what Martin writes in his 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese, p.603: Sometimes the perfect is used more for politeness than for time reference: あなたはどなたでした = お名前は何とおっしゃいましたか ‘What did you say your name was?’ (when the person has actually not yet said); 判子をお持ちでしたね ‘You have your chop (= signature-seal) ...


6

In basically all daily conversations, the only natural way to express the numbers and items is: Name of item + (particle) + number + counter + verb phrase Natural: 「ビッグマックをふたつ[食]{た}べた。」 = "I ate two Big Macs." Natural: 「みそラーメン(を)よっつ[下]{くだ}さい。」 = "Four miso-ramens, please!" Unnatural though grammatical: 「ふたつのビッグマックを食べた。」 & 「よっつのみそラーメンを下さい。」 The ...


6

Particles have multiple uses or meanings. が can be used to mark the subject. However 好き【すき】 is an adjective not a verb. In this case が marks the target of 好き【すき】 which is cats. 1) 私は猫が好き 2) 猫は私が好き The pattern of these sentences is: Topic は target of adjective が adjective I(topic) like(adjective) cats(target of adjective). Cats(topic) ...


6

There is 「こと」 that actually means "thing(s)" and there is 「こと」 that does not mean "thing(s)". 「ふたつのことをかんがえています。」 means "I am thinking of two things." The こと clearely means "thing". In the following sentence, however, こと does not really mean that. 「すみこさんのことがすきです。」 = "I like/love Sumiko." One could possibly translate it as "I like the things ...


6

Generally speaking, ~として is used for "as a". You use a noun before として. For example: As a friend... 友{とも}だちとして...


6

First, I must say that "it has been decided that ~~" is a highly overrated translation of 「~~ことになる」 among J-learners. Truth is that that is not what it means even half the time. 「あすで1週間雨が降りつづくことになる。」 means "It will have ended up raining a whole week." It has already been raining for 6 straight days now and the weather forecast says that it will rain ...


5

"で" in どこでも is not the particle "で" meaning "at" or "in". Here, "でも" is something like English "-ever" or "any-" in whatever, anywhere, etc. だれでも whoever だれにでも勝てる I can defeat anyone. (~に勝つ = defeat ~) いつでも whenever いつまででも (lit. until whenever) forever なんでも whatever どこでも (in/at) wherever どこにでも行く go (to) wherever どこへでも行く go (to) wherever どこまででも行く go (to) ...


5

Yes, you can place frequency words like たいてい, いつも, 普通, 普段 etc. before "time+に". 私はたいてい7時15分に起きます。 私は[普通]{ふつう}7時15分に起きます。 私は[普段]{ふだん}7時15分に起きます。 etc. For more examples, see Weblio辞書usuallyを含む例文一覧


5

When you have never met someone (or have no way of knowing the person, e.g. on the phone), どちら様ですか is how to enquire for someone's name/identity. When the circumstances/your memory suggest that you have met before, but you simply don't recall who they are, どちら様でしたか is more natural. (Note that, by extension, you can also use どちら様でしたか in the first case by ...


5

側 (がわ) is 'side', and it's being modified by the phrase before it. You can think of the two 'sides' here as the side that does the interview, and the side is interviewed. Although literally it's 'side', you could also think of it as 'perspective', or 'being in someone else's shoes'. 未経験者を面接をする[側] the side/perspective of those that interview people who ...


5

As YangMuye explained, honorifics can be used to clarify first and second person without ever needing to use a first or second person pronoun. In that, usage of 謙譲語{けんじょうご} implies I'm talking about me. Usage of 尊敬語{そんけいご} implies I am talking about you. An extended discussion about this topic can be read on the thread titled そちら as a second person pronoun. ...


5

[飲]{の}み[干]{ほ}す, [燃]{も}えゆく are compound verbs(複合動詞): 飲む + 干す >> 飲み干す, 燃える + 行く >> 燃えゆく 例: 死にゆく、食べ続ける、話し終える、飛び立つ、言い出す... ← continuative form(連用形) verb + verb Compare: 燃えてゆく(燃えていく) is made of the verb 燃える + the subsidiary verb(補助動詞) ゆく/いく(行く). 例: 死んでいく、食べてもらう、話してくれる、飛んでくる、言ってしまう... ← te-form verb + subsidiary verb


5

Sentence 1) is easy — it clearly means "I like cats." Sentence 2) is more difficult, and has already generated complicated discussions about grammar elsewhere on this site. It's an unusual-looking sentence, and it's certainly not a normal way of saying "Cats like me." It could mean "I like cats." and I think that this is the most natural ...


5

Side question first, so I will not forget. Whenever you see a 「上」 or 「下」 in an explanation in a Japanese dictionary, "Think Vertical" as in "vertical writing" and take the words 「上」 and 「下」 literally. 「上」 refers to what precedes something and 「下」, what folllows. Thus, 「上に来る副詞」 refers to 「よく」 and 「どうして」, respectively, in the example expressions. On to ...


4

I think you can say it like this: おはようございます!ピクニックでリナさんを探していたんですが、どこにも*見え**ませんでしたね。(polite) *どこも→どこにも **The 見える is the honorific form of いる(居る), and its subject (=リナさん) is implied. To avoid the confusing with 「(私がリナさんを)見えませんでした」(見える = potential form of 見る), you can rephrase it as 「どこにもいらっしゃらなかったですね。」, using いらっしゃる which is another honorific form of いる. ...


4

These are grammatically correct, but perhaps 「~ものです」 is stronger than you might think. Especially I think the third example is too strong; it's something like "Every guy is expected to give chocolates..." White Day in Japan is not that obligatory, so I'd recommend 「日本社会では、3月14日に、男性が女性にチョコをプレゼントする(という)習慣があります。」 (BTW, あげる is usually written in hiragana when ...


4

This is a common pattern of taking a noun + particle + verb combination and shortening the verb to it's stem form: As Choko points out in her comment to your question: 日に焼ける drops the particle に and changes 焼ける into the stem 焼け => 日焼け 炭火で焼く drops the particle で and changes 焼く into the stem 焼き => 炭火焼き 家で飲む drops the particle で and changes 飲む ...


4

These are (deverbal) noun-noun compounds: The first noun is either an adjunct to or an argument of the verb. The second noun is a deverbal form of a verb—specifically, its 連用形 ("continuative form"), a verb form used as a noun. When the nouns are put together, rendaku ("sequential voicing") sometimes occurs: If the first noun is an adjunct, ...


4

I don't think those meanings sound very different, but if you were to give some examples we would be better able to address your question. ~うちに can be used in a number of (grammatical) situations, and in almost all of those it can be understood in English1 as "while". 考えているうちに分からなくなった。 Kangaete iru uchi ni wakaranaku natta. (While thinking about it, ...



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