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Don't treat 「とは」 as a single unit. 「〜と違う」 means "different from". This 「と」 is the one normally glossed as "with", although I can't think of a way to use that gloss here. When 「〜と違う」 is used in the outermost layer of the sentence, it is normally becomes 「〜とは違う」. While I can't give a technical explanation of why this is the case, I'd say the hand-wavey one ...


2

I will preface this answer by saying there is no hard-and-fast rule, like with most particles, about when to use と and when to use こと. So, I'll try to stick directly to the context you provided. と The particle と is used in quite a few ways, but in this particular case (haha, get it?) it's a quoting particle. 明日{あした}も雨{あめ}です。 It will rain tomorrow, ...


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Here, とは is just pointing out that we're defining a characteristic of the N700 group. (The と is the quotative particle, but I don't think that really helps in parsing this.) どこが違う? is not asking for a definition per se, but for defining a characteristic. Your translation is pretty close. Literally, I'd translate it as something like: Where is the ...


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Exactly as you say. 「たくさんの[階段]{かいだん}を[昇]{のぼ}った[後]{あと}だったので[彼女]{かのじょ}は[完全]{かんぜん}に[息]{いき}を[切]{き}らしていた。」 "After running up so many flights of steps, she was completely out of breath. " The English translation from that page is not topnotch IMHO because it fails to reflect the strong causal link that you speak of. More specifically, it does not even ...


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This isn't literal but it seems natural: 妹の誕生日に人形をあげました。


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As @Eric mentioned, に is the correct choice, and there is no harm in having two of them in this sentence. In addition to that, you could use には to emphasize that it was specifically for her birthday instead of some other occasion. 誕生日には妹に人形をあげました。 → For her birthday, I gave my little sister a doll. Note that you can also use [贈]{おく}る for giving a ...


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There is no problem having two に particles in one sentence. Your original choice is most correct. Using [event]+に is the best way to express that something will happen for [event], and [person]+にあげる happens to also be the best way to express that you are giving something to [person]. 誕生日{たんじょうび}に妹{いもうと}に人形{にんぎょう}をあげました。


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I think the difference has more to do with semantics rather than specific words or phrasing. Even in English, we say "I was sick, but I got better", to imply that being "well" is the normal state, probably because being sick in prolonged state is not commonly seen, but if you wanted to, you could also use the same exact wording to indicate recovering from a ...


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を is put right after object, and が is put right after subject, and they are not exchangeable, or the meaning will be changed. This kind of stuff is really confusing at first, but the most important thing you should remember is the most common character you should put right after subject is "は", and the one right after object is "を". ...



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