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I see this pattern once in a while. These 曰く are the same as the one preceded by a name, except that the speakers are unimportant and thus omitted. So basically these just mean "one says ..., another says ..., another says, ...". As for the last two 曰く, even the contents of their speech are omitted, thus effectively implying they are quibbling about trivial ...
YES, That is right. "メールするよう(に)お告げがありました" "に" is optional. Here, "ように" or "よう" is used in the sense of such instructions or request. or "メールするよう(に との)お告げがありました" "メールするよう(に という)お告げがありました" as other example "上司から今すぐ帰社するよう(に)連絡がありました" "医者に規則正しい生活を送るよう(に)言われました"
This でも is used to mean "〜 or something", usually in regards to suggestions. It leaves room for other options. 食事でもどうですか → How about something to eat (or something else)? お茶にでもいかない？ → Would you like to go out for tea maybe? 参照 The use of でも and ででも in this sentence
書き込みによると means "according to the entry/note." 書き込み = (handwritten) note; post; jotting; entry. によると = a JLPT 1 grammar point that means "according to". You can read more on this grammatical form here. Hope this helps!
Generally there are three choices for the kind of quantifiers addressed here. Although the OP's question uses numeral quantifiers, the same would be true for others, such as すべて, etc. Attributive position That is the case where the quantifier, marked by の, precedes the noun, e.g. the OP's third example. Composition Composition is when the quantifier ...
The subject of って (と言って) is void or general you/they and that of いない is ママ (I guess it refers to a owner of a bar here). So, the whole いくら「ママが死んじゃっていないから」って translates into "no matter how much you say because the lady is dead and gone", and in more natural sounding English (aside from "lady"), "(he shouldn't do it) even if the lady is dead and gone".
Almost, but not quite. First of all, it's kind of a strange sentence in English. In Japanese, it is usually possible to omit one or more pieces of information and the meaning will still be clear. In this case, however, there are four different people involved: The speaker, the listener, Paul, and Paul's father. So in order to convey the exact meaning of ...
Usage of の devides into (1) pronoun and (2) nominalizer. 難しいのと簡単なやつ、どっちがいい？ Which do you like, difficult one and easy one? それが難しいのは知っている I know that it's difficult. And, when the nominalizer appears in the position of the predecate of the sentence, we call it "explanatory/emphasizing の". Speaking of your examples, you can regard この中でどれが一番難しいのですか and ...
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