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4

Wouldn't っ normally require the first onyomi to have a tsu ending? No. This small っ is unrelated to big つ in most cases. This letter is used as gemination (促音【そくおん】) marker that you should double the next consonant*1. One source of geminate consonants is kanji that had final consonant accommodated to Japanese pronunciation*2 e.g. 合 kap + 戦 sen → 合戦 ...


0

I think in general this happens to ease pronunciation, so a word isn't too hard to pronounce then generally it doesn't have to change. I think I've heard of variations based on modern / past or dialect. This for example doesn't even have to a 'k' sound or a 'big つ' initially, even words like 暖かい (あたたかい) are very commonly pronounced (あったかい), ta-ta-ka is ...


2

The name of this phenomenon is called "gemination," and it is a specific case of a larger phenomenon that happens in many languages called "sandhi" (after some research, there appears to be a Japanese term for this as well, known as 連{れん}音{おん}). As for why it doesn't happen in 加湿器, I actually am not 100% sure myself, but I would guess it's because Japanese ...



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