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Japanese has a clearer distinction between volitional-future and simple-future than English. "I think I will go" can be parsed in two ways, one involving volition, and one without. 私は行こうと思う (Volitional future) 私は行くと思う (Simple future) "Will" being interpreted without volition when used in the first-person can be a little counter-intuitive. So ...


平成 will last until the Emperor's death. So, until that happens, every future year is stated as 平成. If he were to pass away, then there would be a new name decided upon, and that year would be the final year of 平成 (up to day of his death) and the [元年]{がんねん} of the next era (starting from the day after his death). Once the change happens, obviously any ...


Am I wrong that it can be used this way? No. This grammatical form is standard in monologue situations, just like your example: "Hum, should I go?" (undecided). The other example translates rather like "I wonder if I'll go" (answer unknown).


You are most likely mishearing 〜てやる, as in 殺してやる. Related: What does てやる mean when it is not used for giving?


It all depends on the situations in which you want to say those but here are some natural-sounding sentences. For Sentence 1: 「明日には仕事を終えるつもりです(or 終えるつもりでいます)。」 Plain active voice. If you absolutely must use 「絶対」, place it right in front of the 仕事 or 終える. You could also say: 「明日には(or までには)仕事を終わらせるつもりです。」 I used a causative 終わらせる here. For ...


No, きっと means "certainly" here. I don't understand what you find wrong with 'is' in your translation. Insert a 'you' before 'will' and it makes perfect sense.

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