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13

They're contracted from かけちゃおう and つないじゃおう, which are colloquial versions of 駆{か}けてしまおう and 繋{つな}いでしまおう, "let's run" and "lets connect", in this case 手を繋ぐ, "hold hands" The auxiliary verb しまう usually means "do something accidentally", but in this case in the volitional form, it's used to express carefreeness. 手を繋いじゃおう Let's hold hands (and not care ...


7

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


6

かけちゃお = かけてしまおう つないじゃお = つないでしまおう


5

コーヒー割り “split / divided coffee” No, it is コーヒー modifying 割り, not the other way around. Japanese is left-branching in an almost completely consistent way. Keeping that meaning of 割る, it would be “split / divided by/with coffee”. As others have explained, 割る here means dilute, by which you reach the expected meaning.


5

I didn't know of 泡盛 until I looked it up just now in Wikipedia but I think 〜割り is often used when you dilute a drink (probably alcoholic like 泡盛)with something else. The one I am most familiar with is ウイスキー水割り, which is whiskey diluted with iced water, often ordered by salary-men in hostess/entertainment clubs/old-fashioned Karaoke bars. In your case it ...


4

http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/ti_list.html Has a good list of them, in case you wanted to see them at a glance. Nothing I could find gave a good reason for it. Probably the language just evolved organically, as they tend to do. Of course, linguists will try to explain anything, so I'm not surprised that Japanese paper is so hard to digest. ...


4

Firstly, as was noted in the comments (by Tsuyoshi Ito), that the same thing cannot be done with other adjectives ending in ~らか. On the other hand, there exists a number of adjectives, which can function both as イ-adjective and as ナ-adjective, e.g. 大きい 大きな 小さい 小さな 真っ白い 真っ白な (etc.) 細かい 細かな 暖かい 暖かな 四角い 四角な (etc.) 柔らかい 柔らかな (but, of course, やわらかい ...


3

That structure came from classical Japanese (文語), which had been used in formal writing until just after WWII. Technically those are not 辞書形 (終止形), but 連体形. In classical Japanese, the 連体形 of a verb can work as a noun, like 連体形 + の/こと in modern Japanese (口語).


3

Both やらなきゃ and やらなくちゃ are colloquial contractions of やらなければ "If does not do". All of the above 3 can be short for やらなければいけない/ならない "have to do" when used sentence-finally, but not when used in an appositive/relative clause.  × やらなきゃこと  × やらなきゃとき There are cases where やらなきゃ and やらなくちゃ happen to be followed by a noun, but in these cases they're ...


2

あの状況にはうんざりする Yes it sounds correct. あの状況にはうんざりさせる ? No, because it literally sounds like YOU are feeding up something (it should be you who are fed up). "させる" is let someone do something, generally. So you can say instead あの状況にはうんざりさせられる as you mentioned.


2

The answer to your question is simple. We have this grammar in a lot of Japanese Christian prayers. For example we say: 王なる神様、this means Our God King 聖なる神様、our Holy God Now there are some words that can be used with the なる form and some that can only use the な form きれいなる女 is incorrect because the adjective きれい can not take the なる form. There is no real ...


2

Note that this isn't just the volitional, which for 呼び求める would be 呼び求めよう, it's the volitional of the potential form, and it's specifically paired with どうして. It is, as you say, a rhetorical question. どうして呼び求めることができよう(か) would have the same meaning, I don't know why they use that form in some sentences and not in others in your quote. This form has a ...


2

The best way to think of this is that there are 2 types of words here. Ones such as 近い that are adjectives being transformed into nouns and ones such as 赤 that are nouns being transformed into adjectives. If you look at Japanese there are tons of words that are often used as nouns that can be made into adjectives just by adding い, for example 四角 -> 四角い、 黄色 ...


2

Constructions like 聞くがよい are a command or strong suggestion: "Listen"/"You should listen". On the other hand, if you add の or こと after the verb, I think it becomes a more broad/general statement: "It is good to listen". Maybe it could achieve approximately the same effect, but at the very least I think there's a big difference in the strength of the ...


1

For ratios, 割{わり} is also used in other contexts to mean something like "10%", extending from the meaning of "split". So 十割そば are noodles that are 10 x 10% buckwheat, i.e. 100% buckwheat. 七割そば would be 70% buckwheat (the rest usually made up of wheat). For beverages, other kinds of 割 include: コーラ割り, like rum and coca cola 牛乳割り, like milk and brandy ...


1

There is often more than one way to turn adjectives into nouns. 赤さ and 近さ are nouns too. The semantic relationship between 赤い and 赤 is quite different from the one between 近い and the noun 近く. When learning about related words in different classes, I would learn the productive derivations (~さ is productive), and then deal with the fact that the rest have to ...



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