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18

Both さけ and しゃけ mean salmon and are written as 鮭 in kanji (but I will avoid using this kanji in this answer for an obvious reason). As far as I know, there is no difference in meaning, but some people seem to distinguish the two words in meanings (see below). According to a webpage by Maruha Nichiro Foods, Inc., the Kōjien dictionary lists the word しゃけ as ...


16

まぐろ (also written as マグロ and 鮪) is the Japanese word for thunnus, a specific kind of tuna. It refers to both the living fish and the food. Traditionally, まぐろ also referred to billfish because billfish was considered to be a close kind to thunnus. Because of this, even today まぐろ can also refer to billfish. ツナ comes from the English word tuna and it refers ...


16

Observe:  飯 meshi ご飯 gohan They both mean the same thing, which is (cooked) rice and/or meal. Since rice is an essential part of Japanese cuisine, the two meanings very much overlap. As you said, ご〜 go- is an honorific prefix, which makes ご飯 gohan the politer alternative used in more polite speech. 昼飯 hirumeshi 昼ご飯 hirugohan Both mean ...


13

This answer from another site claims that しゃけ is an accent difference in Saitama, Chiba, Shizuoka (basically Kantou). http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/11481.html But, when I did a part-time job at an 居酒屋(いざかや) during my college time in 四国 (Shikoku - not in Kantou region) around 2005, some people used しゃけ. I didn't know the meaning at that time, and some people ...


12

Although 並(nami), 大(dai) will works on most of the place, but others would depend on each restaurants. For Small - 小 (shou), ミニ (mini), 半分(hanbun), 少なめ (sukuname), S (エス) ... For Normal - 並 (nami), 普通(ふつう), 中(chuu), M (エム)... For Big - 大 (dai), 大盛り (oomori), 多め (oome), L (エル)... For Special Big - 1.5盛 (ittengo mori) (sukiya invented it) For extra Big - ...


11

I don't have a full answer here (at least not yet), but I do want to note that the kanji here are definitely not any kind of ateji - they are actually the exact opposite, a gikun (義訓 - 'meaning reading'), since 山 has no reading わさ, and 葵 has no reading び. That means the etymology of the word わさび itself is unrelated to the etymology of the kanji わさび, and ...


10

The 丼 donburi in 牛丼 gyūdon specifically denotes a bowl of rice. The 飯 meshi in 牛飯 gyūmeshi just means rice or even more generically meal. Both describe the same thing: ぎゅう‐どん【牛丼】 「牛飯(ぎゅうめし)」に同じ。 "See gyūmeshi." ぎゅう‐めし【牛飯】 ネギなどと煮た牛肉を、汁とともにかけたどんぶり飯。牛丼(ぎゅうどん)。 "A rice meal with onions and fried beef [...]. Gyūdon." I'm not sure which one is ...


10

Yes, there is the more broad term [鯨肉]{げいにくor くじらにく} However, because this term usually refers to whale meat, イルカ肉 is more common to discern between the two. Also, I should mention that the likelihood of you ever having the chance to eat dolphin meat nowadays is very slim, unless you travel to Wakayama prefecture perhaps. In the past, in some areas, such as ...


9

ご飯 (ごはん), 飯 (めし) and ライス all refer to the same thing: steamed rice. ご飯 and 飯 can mean meal, too. As you said, it is not uncommon to see ライス in a menu at a restaurant, even when it is not part of a compound word such as カレーライス. I do not know why they do not say ご飯, and I can only make a guess at possible reasons: As Jeshii said, they may want to make it ...


9

There is a clear difference (no pun intended) between 日本酒 and 清酒. The clue is in the kanji 「清」 = "clear". 清酒 is one of the two main types of 日本酒 --- 清酒 and にごり[酒]{ざけ}. The former is refined and colorless and the latter is unrefined and cloudy.


8

There's really no difference other than politeness. But politeness is a huge difference in Japanese. For instance, if we take it to the extreme, saying that there's no difference between あなた and 貴様 in Japanese is like saying there's no difference between "Thank you" and "Go to hell." in English. :) 飯 is not as outrageously impolite as 貴様, but in some ...


8

丁寧 (ていねい ) is an "na-adjective/adverb" with two meanings, (1) polite (as you know) and (2) careful or conscientous. The second meaning can apply to the way something is made, prepared or wrapped. I imagine your friend was referring to the way the ramen was made but for food (in general) there could be situations when any one of those three could apply. ...


8

食べ物 - appropriate as written or spoken language, a basic word, commonly used in speech 食品 - food product, think of a packaged food product on a shelf in the store ご飯 - literally rice (polite), used to refer to "a meal" as in breakfast, lunch or dinner 食事 - a meal, frequently used in hotels and restaurants as 「お食事」 (おしゅくじ) 〜物 - assuming you mean 揚げ物 ...


8

I can get into this answer a bit because I'm lactose intolerant, or as it is called in Japanese, 乳糖{にゅうとう}不{ふ}耐症{たいしょう}. Despite the fact that genetically, all Japanese should most likely also all be lactose intolerant, outside of medical practitioners, most people have never heard the term, and so usually it's easier to just say I have a milk allergy ...


8

It is a "rice ball", usually with some kind of meat inside and wrapped in seaweed (similar to sushi). Unlike sushi though, which you hold and eat with chopsticks, an onigiri is made to hold in the hand. The o- is an honorific prefix. It is used to give respect to an object or person, and is done with several choice words (including o-sushi). This ...


8

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


8

This depends on the type of the words. As for easy and common words, such as 桜, 犬, 蚊, they are usually written in kanji. These are written in katakana only in biological contexts. 常用漢字表 generally tells us what is considered easy and standard in modern Japanese. If you wrote "東京はサクラがきれいです" or "イヌを飼いたいと思う", that would look unnatural. Relatively difficult ...


7

In terms of the “substances” they could refer to, ミルク includes 牛乳, plus all the other examples that are given, like baby formula, creamer, and even semen (when used as sexual innuendo). To keep it simple, let’s just say the “substance” we want to refer to is 牛乳. As long as it is clear in the context that you mean 牛乳, it isn’t technically wrong to use ミルク in ...


7

つまむ can mean "to grab," so anything you can just grab casually and eat (usually with some sort of alcohol), or anything you can つまむ, is therefore おつまみ. There's lots of words that are just the noun conjugation of verbs, especially in food! (おにぎり、煮物、おひや... okay, not all of those follow the pattern, but you get the idea!) There's also another word つまみ食い, which ...


7

ライス is used for non-Japanese rice dishes, I believe, like curry or rice served on a plate in Western fashion. カタカナ and borrowed words are also used as 'fancy' or 'elegant' alternatives in Japan, especially in advertising.


7

I'm a lacto-ovo-pescatarian who eats fish but not other seafood, who is living in Japan. The most bewildering thing about your question for the Japanese server is that most Japanese do not consider seafood to be meat. The other confusing part is that they don't generally think in terms of a dish being vegetarian or not (the majority of vegetable dishes in ...


7

Compare the results of Google image search: 惣菜 vs. おかず. 惣菜 and おかず refer to almost the same category of foods, but 総菜/惣菜 typically means prepared food sold in stores. Supermarkets always have お惣菜コーナー (sozai section). Foods that do not spoil rapidly, like breads or snacks, are not considered 惣菜. Dishes prepared at home are usually called おかず, not 惣菜 (at ...


6

In my understanding, everything you could eat when you drink beer/osake is otsumami.


6

Not really. The closest is "三角のおにぎり" to describe the shape. Onigiri have been made in many different shapes over time, including a round shape and the occasionally clever shape that a creative mom might try to make. But many people now think of triangular ones as the normal mode, so you wouldn't need to say anything other than "onigiri" to imply the ...


6

ご飯{はん} is the 美化語{びかご} version of 飯{めし}, i.e. a beautified version. Usually 美化語 has the form of お/ご+the unbeautified version, but ご飯 is an exception. Another exception is 腹{はら}→おなか, belly. はん and なか do not exist by themselves (with those meanings). Please remember that not all お/ご+noun are 美化語, some are 尊敬語{そんけいご}, respectful language. E.g. お車{くるま}, car. ...


6

There is no convenient rule you can use. The different pronunciations come from the different origins of the words. There are basically three kinds of words that are written in kanji in Japanese. 和語 were developed in Japan, 訓読み words are likely to be 和語 漢語 originated in China, 音読み words are likely to be 漢語 There are also combinations of 和語 and 漢語, and ...


6

In my experience... The ones ending in ご飯 are most polite. Actually, using them around friends may get you some strange looks. The ones ending in 飯(めし) seem very informal, somewhat "rough", and mainly used by men. The ones ending in 食 seem to be the most neutral and most widely-used. However, they may regionally have different acceptance levels and/or ...


6

I make it a general rule when I translate these kinds of things from Japanese to English, those being things which may be common in Japanese culture but are rare or otherwise not present in Western culture, to either preserve the Japanese word (for example we say 'sushi' instead of raw fish on rice or whatever) or to go with something descriptive when the ...



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