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3

As I was researching alongside asking the question, I've found a Wikipedia article which states: In China, cowries were so important that many characters relating to money or trade contain the character for cowry: 貝. Starting over three thousand years ago, cowry shells, or copies of the shells, were used as Chinese currency. The Classical Chinese ...


4

Here is how people counted numbers up to ten in archaic Japanese: number n-th day (modern Japanese) -------- --------------- ----------------- ひとつ ひとひ/ついたち ついたち ふたつ ふつか ふつか みつ みか みっか よつ よか/ようか よっか いつつ いつか いつか むつ むゆか むいか ななつ なぬか なのか やつ やうか ようか ...


3

To expand on Matt's answer somewhat, I have a dim memory of reading somewhere that the final り in these adverbs is derived from classical あり (modern ある, to be). Digging around in my sources at the moment, I cannot find where I read this. That said, this functions here in many ways nearly identically to the auxiliary verb (助動詞{じょどうし}) り, which is analyzed ...


4

No, there's no particular reason to suppose an etymological connection between /kuri/ and the other two words. This /-ri/ ending is very common in mimetic adverbs, and indeed we find the expected related term /mukumuku/ as well. There is no /zuguzugu/ that I'm aware of, but according to the Nihon Kokugo Daijiten there is a dialect word /zugumu/ which means "...


2

It's worth noting that ‑zuru forms are historically older than the ‑jiru forms. This might account for the sense l'électeur notes, that the ‑jiru forms come across as "lighter", "less literary", "less formal", etc. How the forms developed Historically, there are many terms that started out as compounds, where a noun or a borrowing ...


5

According to 語源由来辞典「[本]{ほん}」, 本 original pictorial origin is the representation of the thick parts of the roots of a tree. In 漢語 it came to mean "the roots of a thick tree" or "roots of plants". In Japan it came to be used for the "model" writing over which paper would be laid to make a copy of that writing. From that it eventually came to refer to all ...


1

Interchangeable. Just a minor difference in pronunciation. Perhaps it's an [音便]{おんびん} thing


5

The name of 「キヤノン」 was the registered brand name of the first camera model developed by 精機工学研究所 - Seiki Optical Technique Laboratory, which was later developed into today’s Canon Inc. The company was founded by Goro Yoshida and his brother in law in 1933. They named their first camera they developed as “Kwannon” after one of the most popular Buddhist ...


6

Searching for キヤノン 由来 one quickly finds the relevant official page for the origin of the name Canon. It seems that the company name itself was derived from the English word "canon": Canonの語源には、「正典」「規範」「標準」という意味があります。 It was also a welcome coincidence that the pronunciation of キヤノン was close to 観音=カンノン (Kannon, Kwannon, Avalokiteśvara): また「キヤノン」...


2

The Canon name brand comes from 観音, Kannon, or in Sanskrit Avalokiteshvara. The Buddhist bodhisattva "Hears the cries of the world." But there is also a description of her/him have a thousand hands with an eye on the palm of each hand observing the world. It's kind of a beautiful image for a camera name since the camera sees all.


0

I'm astounded to see a series of the answers and comments to this question. Most of them are misguiding and confusing the O.P. They lack even a beginner's knowledge of Chinese language about how to read it and what it means. None of “応、鳴、唯, 越々, and 応々” corresponds to the pronunciation equivalent to “おう” – "oh" or "ou." They are pronounced respectively as "...


2

I can't think of any straightforward uses for お負け as "exaggeration", but it could be used like this: 彼の話にはいつもなんらかのお負けが付いている "There's always a little something more to his stories" This might imply an exaggeration... Sidenote: おまけ can also mean menstrual cycle


7

Leo's guess is actually right. For reference, it is enough to go on the wikipedia page of お負け. The meaning originally comes indeed from the fact that the seller is losing something in the bargaining process (from wiki): おまけの語源は「御負け」の文字通り、店員が客との駆け引きに負けて値を下げる行為を指す言葉であったが、のちに商品以外の物品を追加する行為なども言うようになった.


2

To me both ”役に立つ” and “役立(やくだ)つ” mean the same thing, “It helps,” or “helpful.” When I consulted how to translate “役立(やくだ)つ” into Japanese with Kenkyusha’s “New Japanese English Dictionary” for a reference, it simply told “See 役に立つ.” However, it appears to me there's a bit of difference between their usage and nuance. The former (役に立つ) is more often used ...


6

Please refer to the other answer(s) for your main question (etymology). As for the modern usage, the difference in frequency is not that large. Here are the hit counts from BCCWJ. 役に立 2302, 役に立つ 1039, 役に立っ 270, 役にたつ 94 役立 3031, 役立つ 1419, 役立っ 447, 役だつ 30 役に立つ and 役立つ are not always interchangeable. As a simple predicate, 役に立つ is the more common ...


4

My copy of Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 gives a quote from 狂言記{きょうげんき} using the 役立つ form, dating this term to at least the late 1650s. As to formality, a native speaker would be able to answer more authoritatively, but I am not aware of any particular difference in register between 役立つ and 役に立つ, and none of my resources to hand indicate any such difference.


5

I think Martin has 応 (old form 應) in mind. This was not uncommonly used to write ō, especially in Edo times. A famous haiku by Kyorai: 応々といへどたたくや雪の門 ō ō to / iedo tataku ya / yuki no kado "All right, all right!" / I say, but the knocking doesn't stop / at the gate in the snow However, I agree with the commenters that ō is unlikely to have been borrowed ...



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