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5

Please refer to the other answer(s) for your main question (etymology). As for the modern usage, the difference in frequency is not that large. Here are the hit counts from BCCWJ. 役に立 2302, 役に立つ 1039, 役に立っ 270, 役にたつ 94 役立 3031, 役立つ 1419, 役立っ 447, 役だつ 30 役に立つ and 役立つ are not always interchangeable. As a simple predicate, 役に立つ is the more common ...


4

My copy of Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 gives a quote from 狂言記{きょうげんき} using the 役立つ form, dating this term to at least the late 1650s. As to formality, a native speaker would be able to answer more authoritatively, but I am not aware of any particular difference in register between 役立つ and 役に立つ, and none of my resources to hand indicate any such difference.


3

I think Martin has 応 (old form 應) in mind. This was not uncommonly used to write ō, especially in Edo times. A famous haiku by Kyorai: 応々といへどたたくや雪の門 ō ō to / iedo tataku ya / yuki no kado "All right, all right!" / I say, but the knocking doesn't stop / at the gate in the snow However, I agree with the commenters that ō is unlikely to have been borrowed ...


2

As stated in the thread that WeirdlyCheezy linked to, the full kanji "spelling" for America is 亜米利加. 米 is officially only ベイ or マイ, but, as in other places it acts as a phonetic -- 迷 謎 -- it can also be read as メイ. Ok, so why not 亜国 then? Well, 亜 already referred to Asia in general, so that was out. Ok, 米国 then. Except, 米 isn't commonly read as メイ, and if ...


5

The practice of reversing a word's syllables to create a slang term is a common one across many languages. Compare Pig Latin and these Japanese terms, as above, or the South American argot called Lunfardo -- search the page for the word "vesre" for a description of how slang terms were derived by reversing the syllables. In a nutshell: historical ...


5

Looking at the etymologies independently: 灰 This term appears in the Man'yōshū poetry compilation completed circa 759, so this is an older word. The older kana spelling of this was はひ, indicating an Old Japanese reading of /papi/. Meanwhile, the on'yomi has an older kana spelling of くわい (probably realized as /kwai/), closer to the Middle Chinese it came ...


7

As I grew up and lived with Japanese culture, I accepted the description "yellow voice" without question. So now I've looked up why the high voices of women or children are called yellow (黄色い声). If it was described as black voice, blue voice or brown voice I would be confused. Maybe red voice would be OK, but to me yellow voice is better. Anyway, I looked ...


1

To make the lengthy and too academic story short, 「戦う」and「叩く」are related in its origin and meaning long, long, and long time ago, but are different words, as we use different characters today. 「新明解国語辞典」edited by Kindaichi kyosuke and published by Sanseido defines 戦う as: [Root] Originally meant 叩き合う. ① to try to conquer the opponent by resorting to (...


8

叩く and 戦う Etymologically, Shogakukan's 国語【こくご】大辞典【だいじてん】 and 大辞林【だいじりん】 list just the ふ auxiliary derivation. Meanwhile, 大辞泉【だいじせん】 lists both the ふ auxiliary and the 合う possibility as derivations. Given the not-uncommon pattern of deriving iterative / repetitive / continuative verbs by appending ふ to the 未然形【みぜんけい】, and given the appropriate semantics ...


6

Yes they are related. According to デジタル大辞泉: 辞書を引くと、「[動ワ五(ハ四)]《動詞「たた(叩)く」の未然形に反復継続の助動詞「ふ」の付いたものからとも、『叩き合ふ』の音変化とも》」 Basically there are two theories. The one you suggested: a sound change from 叩き合う. (The dictionary entry mentions 『叩き合ふ』 but now all ふ-ending are う-ending verbs) The second theory is that it come from the verb 叩く to which is appended ...


4

I was in the middle of replying that I don't think so, because I was looking at the Kanji etymology for 戦{いくさ}, for example here and of 戦う on weblio. I was also starting to discuss that there is another Kanji that can be used for たたく, that is 敲{たた}く.. when I decided to dig more and I found something interesting at this link. According to this source: 「...



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