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Taken from here: 杜撰の「杜」は、中国宋の杜黙(ともく)という詩人を表し、「撰」は詩文を作ることで、杜黙の作った詩は律(詩の様式)に合わないものが多かったという故事に由来するという、中国の「野客叢書(やかくそうしょ)」の説が有力とされる。日本には禅を通じて入ったとされ、古くは「ずざん(づざん)」と言われた。 Translation: The 杜{ず} of 杜撰{ずさん} represents the poet 杜黙{ともく} from the Song Dynasty. 撰{さん} represents making poems. The poems made by 杜黙{ともく} often did not fit the metre, and this act is ...


5

Something similar happened in English, where "you", a formerly polite form which contrasted with "thou", is now the common second person pronoun with no inherent politeness. It's a kind of semantic change called pejoration. In a society which values politeness, people will use a word B which sounds nicer/more polite than the usual word A. Once everybody ...


4

It's short for 電気【でんき】スタンド, which we can see in sense ② in Daijirin: ②「電気スタンド」の略【りゃく】。 Here, 略 means "abbreviation". And of course, 電気{でんき} means both "electricity" and "[electric] light". Why does 電気 have this meaning? Well, most dictionaries don't say, and I suppose this could be simple metonymy, but when we look up 電気 in 日本国語大辞典, we find: ...


4

Since no-one else has tried to answer, I'll write up a few thoughts in the hope of attracting a more knowledgeable person, Somebody Is Wrong On The Internet style. I do not think there is any single, universally accepted name for this form. Sometimes you see the term "ri adverb" (in Japanese, "り副詞"), but this often encompasses 3-mora adverbs too (yahari as ...


3

As far as I know, there is no consensus for the origin of this word. I've checked a number of resources including 日本国語大辞典 (but the 精選版, not the full edition), 日本文法大辞典, and the other various monolingual dictionaries I have at hand, and none offer an explanation. Martin offers one theory, courtesy of Ōtsuki, on page 136 of his 1975 Reference Grammar of ...



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