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17

"Tomorrow" is said in three different ways in Standard Japanese. In the order of formality, those are: みょうにち、あす and あした. (In kanji, all three are written as 「明日」.) あした is by far the most common pronunciation for everyday speech among friends, family, neighbors, etc. あす is a little more formal than あした. It is used in more official communication than ...


13

I looked up in my etymology dictionary (小学館's 日本語源大辞典) :) The answer goes like this: つくも was originally a name of a kind of plant (modern standard name: フトイ; English name is softstem bulrush or great bulrush according to Wikipedia). A compound word つくもがみ < つくも + かみ "disheveled white hair (especially of old women)" was coined, because of its ...


11

Any word read in on'yomi in Japanese and using the Sinic hanja reading in Korean is probably ultimately attributable to Middle Chinese, unless evidence can be found of an independent coinage somewhere on the Japanese archipelago or the Korean peninsula. Terms like the ones below are likely borrowings from Middle or later Korean, rather than Chinese. We can ...


11

It's not a wholly Japanese word. It's a shortening of [空]{から} ('empty') and オーケストラ. So, since at least part of it needs to be written with katakana, the whole word is written with katakana. (Switching between the two within one word typically only happens in slang verbs like サボる.)


10

I took a look at the book OP mentioned and following is a super-simplified summary of how "ン" was invented, as described in the book. I'm no historian nor linguist, so I can't guarantee this is true. There was no kanji for "ん/ン" at all in Man’yōgana (万葉仮名). This is partly because, in those days, the Chinese writing system also had no simple character for ...


9

There seems to be two prevailing explanations about this. ① 生 in 生前 is in fact 死, in Buddism In Japanese there is a word 往生【おうじょう】, which apparently means "to go alive" but actually means "to die". This is based on the idea of 輪廻転生【りんねてんせい】 (cycle of existence) in Buddism, and "往生" can be interpreted as "to go to the next existence / the second life." So ...


9

明鏡国語辞典 has this explanation: さいころとばくで、勝ちとなる目の意から。 I.e. 目 refers to the dots/pips on dice.


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


9

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


8

Henshall writes on p.130 of A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters: 艹 is plant 9. 央 is center 429 q.v., here acting phonetically to express bloom and possibly lending an idea of blocked off at the head from its assumed original meaning of person yoked at the neck. 426 originally meant a flower that blossomed but lacked seed, such a flower being ...


8

To answer the title question first, yes, it is. Roughly, I am going to say that it happens incidentally 90% of the time and intentionally the rest of the time. This comes from innocent ignorance 80-90% of the time as the English word "flea" is simply not known nearly as widely as the word "free" among the average people. The word 「フリー」(from "free") is ...


7

Your hypothesis that カツ stems from cutlet seems correct. According to kotobank, カツ is the shortened form of カツレツ, i.e. cutlet. See here for its culinary history.


7

As written on gogen allguide: Apparently it's from the Buddhist 火車{かしゃ} piece of mythology. The story goes that those who were rotten in their lifetimes would be carried into the flames of hell on a cart driven by a petty demon. This suffering was then later metaphorically applied to financial difficulties. A possible alternate explanation is that it's ...


7

The Online Kanji Etymology Dictionary has some rather terse notes on how these two meanings came to be. A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters (Henshall) describes its history as: Once written showing a boat 舟, a person 卩, and a hand 又. [...] The early meaning is known to have been work, and some scholars feel that it meant literally bend down in ...


7

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


7

It's Kansai dialect. I don't think it's official 敬語 recognized by 文科省. It's 尊敬語. 食べはる ≒ 食べられる, 召し上がる [来]{き}はる ≒ [来]{こ}られる, いらっしゃる 先生が来はった。≒ 先生が来られた, 先生がいらっしゃった I think ~~はる sounds less polite/formal than the standard 尊敬語. I think it comes from なさる (--> なはる --> はる ?)


7

Put simply, the particle へ is derived from the noun 方{へ}. Bjarke Frellesvig provides a brief explanation in his book A History of the Japanese Language (page 132). … The noun pye "side, direction" was being grammaticalized as an allative case particle pye, but in the Old Japanese period had not yet acquired that status. As for pronunciation, sound ...


7

My dictionary 漢字源 lists as meanings {名} はな。はなぶさ。中央がくぼみ、芯を含んだような形をしたはな。→ 華 {形・名} うるわしい。すぐれている。ひいでた者。「英雄」「英明」。 & 4. [omitted] The literal meaning being related to a flower, the extended meaning being "lovely" or "outstanding" or "someone skillful". The words 英雄 "hero" and 英明 "intelligent" are listed under this extended meaning.


6

The Japanese Wikipedia offers an explanation, unfortunately not backed by any reference: ギリシャあるいはギリシアという名称は、ラテン語名の Graecia (グラエキア)がポルトガル語で Grécia (グレスィア)となり、これが宣教師によって日本にもたらされ変容したとされる。 So it seems that the Latin name of Greece is Graecia became Grécia in Portuguese, which in turn became what it is in Japanese when (Portuguese?) missionaries visited.


6

There is no hidden meaning in the 「見」 part of those verbs -- none. First, not that I think you are mistaken, I want to make sure that we are not discussing the kanji 「見」 here. Instead, we are discussing the 連用形 of the verb 「見る」, which only happens to be 「見」. 連用形 is the form of the verb that comes first in [複合動詞]{ふくごうどうし} , two-verb compound verbs, which ...


6

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


6

Most Ainu loanwords in regular use are names for plants/animals indigenous to northern Japan, such as reindeer (トナカイ) and sea otter (ラッコ). These loans are old enough that there ARE usually kanji that can be used for them: 馴鹿 (トナカイ, can also be read じゅんろく) 海獺 or 猟虎 (ラッコ) However, many plant/animal names are usually written in katakana (e.g. カバ for ...


6

もんごん is the 呉音 reading, and ぶんげん is the 漢音 reading. Although kanji compounds (熟語) can in principle have both readings (in addition to any number of customary ones), it seems it is more common to have only one.


6

The first が is not a subject particle. In combination with 「...う」 and/or 「まい」, it means "no matter", or "regardless of". Here is an excerpt from スーパー大辞林{だいじりん}: (4)どんな事柄{ことがら}でもかまわない,の意{い}を表{あらわ}す。「…うが」「…まいが」の形{かたち}をとる。「どうなろう―知{し}ったことではない」「行{い}こう―行{い}くまい―,君{きみ}の勝手{かって}だ」 The first example can be translated to: "No matter how it becomes, I do not give a ...


6

I'd like to add some more detail onto Zhen Lin's answer. My source is primarily Shogakukan's 1988 version of their Kokugo Dai Jiten Dictionary, Shinsou-ban (Revised edition). Morphology and Phonology Modern 出{で}来{き}る comes from older 出{で}来{く}る, comes from older 出{で}来{く}, comes from older 出{い}で来{く}. The oldest form is clearly a compound of 出{い}づ + 来{く}. ...


6

Much as described in the question comments by Yang Muye and blutorange, 1) all of these sumu verbs derive from Old Japanese in ways that make the kanji irrelevant to a discussion of etymology, and 2) all of the modern senses of sumu arise from an underlying idea of to settle. Interestingly, the English term to settle covers most of the same meanings as the ...


6

As noted in the question comments, the kanji 円 was originally 圓. The nutshell version of the article Yang Muye linked is that monks developed a shorthand version of 圓 that looked like a box with a vertical line through it: . Over time, the shape of the surrounding box changed, likely due to the same anatomical and mechanical processes that inform any ...


6

In the dictionary 字通【じつう】 (1996), we find: [3] よく温熟する、ならう、たずねる。 In addition, the dictionary 類聚名義抄【るいじゅみょうぎしょう】 (approx. 12th century) lists* the following meanings for 温: アタゝム・タツヌ・ウルフ・ツゝム・シル・アタゝカナリ・ウツクシ・ヤハラカナリ 尋【たず】ねる (or rather, タツヌ) is the second listed. Moving on now to Chinese sources, in 漢典, it is written: (2) 复习 [review] ...


5

In a Buddhist worldview, birth and death are two sides of the same coin: Birth and death form the cycle on the left. To escape the cycle you need a special birth, i.e.「往生」, which lead you to "the land of Perfect Bliss". On the other hand, in order to be polite to the 「死者{ししゃ}」 and his/her relatives, people tend not to directly use 「死」 to refer to his/her ...


5

the katsu karē (カツカレー) dish was from English inspiration originally Although カレー(curry), or カレーライス(curry rice), has a British inspiration as @virmaior says (Curry was introduced to Japan during the Meiji era (1868–1912) by the British... / 今、日本人が一般に食べている「カレーライス」は、「インドのカレー」ではなく、「イギリスのカレー」です), the dish カツカレー(curry rice with pork cutlet) itself was not ...



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